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Marginalisation is used as an explanation for both criminality and lack of criminality.

Some feminist sociologists suggest that it is the marginal position of women in society that means that they commit fewer crimes than men: they have fewer opportunities to commit crimes because of marginalisation, as opposed to men who can commit occupational crime at work as well as being more likely to form criminal subcultures due to not being confined in a domestic role. However, it could be argued that this theory is outdated.

Left realists on the other hand suggest that it is the marginalisation of young people and some minority ethnic groups that can cause criminality. This can be linked to Hirschi's idea of bonds of attachment.

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