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Jean Baudrillard was born in France in 1929 and began his academic career teaching sociology in Paris. His radical attitude made him famous along with his outspoken Marxist views.

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Sociologist in Focus: Jean Baudrillard
Study notes

Left Realism

Left realists, like Lea and Young (1984), have their roots in Marxism and radical criminology yet criticise Marxists for their "left idealism".

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Left Realism

A comprehensive digital study companion for the AQA A Level Sociology Core Topic: Crime & Deviance

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Crime & Deviance: AQA A Level Sociology Topic Companion

James Q. Wilson concluded that the extent to which a community regulates itself has a dramatic impact on crime and deviance.  The "broken windows" referred to in the theory’s...

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Broken Windows Theory

Many traditional sociological theories of crime are criticised for being too theoretical, too abstract and not useful in terms of developing social policy.  For realists, crime is a real social...

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Realism and Right Realism

Stan Cohen (1972) researched the fights, which took place mainly in English seaside resorts on bank holidays, between two youth subcultures: the mods and rockers.

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Folk Devils and Moral Panics (Cohen 1972)

Rosenthal and Jacobson's famous "Pygmalion in the Classroom" study (testing labelling and the self-fulfilling prophecy).

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Education: Back to the Source - Rosenthal and Jacobson

Howard Becker (1963): his key statement about labelling is: “Deviancy is not a quality of the act a person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules...

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Labelling Theory - Explained

This collection of six classroom posters covers a series of core sociological perspectives. Your poster pack contains six a2-sized full colour posters.

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Sociological Perspectives - Classroom Poster Collection Vol 1

Some Marxists who sought to adapt Marx's ideas (known as neo-Marxists) took onboard some of the criticisms, particularly concerning the apparent passivity of the working class.  Neo-Marxists recognised that working-class...

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Neo-Marxism and Critical Criminology

The existence of crime in non-capitalist societies, especially communist societies, for example, the Soviet Union in the 20th century or modern-day Cuba has been used to challenge the concept of...

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Evaluating Classical Marxist Approaches to Crime

Marxists argue that the economic system of capitalism itself causes crime. The whole system is based on the exploitation of the working class by the ruling class, leading to the...

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Classical Marxist Approaches to Crime

Matza presents an interesting functionalist alternative to subcultural theories where he suggests that, in fact, we all share the "delinquent" values that lead some people to criminal and deviant behaviour...

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Matza: Subterranean Values and "Drift" (1964)

Miller suggested that working-class boys were socialised into a number of distinct values that together meant they were more likely than others to engage in delinquent or deviant behaviour. Miller...

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Miller: Focal Concerns (1958)

Cloward and Ohlin sought to combine the theories of Merton and Cohen to explain the different kinds of criminal subcultures they identified in contemporary America.

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Cloward and Ohlin: Illegitimate Opportunity Structures (1960)

Cohen set out to develop Merton's strain theory and particularly to address questions about why groups commit crimes and why people commit non-utilitarian crimes.  In doing so he developed a...

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Cohen: Status Frustration (1955)

Another important functionalist contribution to our understanding of crime and deviance comes from Travis Hirschi. While most sociologists who have thought about crime and deviance have focused on why people...

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Hirschi: Bonds of Attachment (1969)

Robert K Merton was born in 1910 in the USA and is credited with coining the terms ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’ and ‘role models’ as well as extensive research into the concept of...

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Sociologist in Focus: Robert K Merton

Merton (1938) concluded that Americans were socialised into believing in the American Dream; that a consensus existed about what people's social goals should be: success and material wealth.  However, equal access...

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Robert K Merton's Strain Theory - Explained

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