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Demography is the study of population and its changes over time.

There are limits to population growth that can be physical, environmental, and socio-economic. These limits vary between countries and regions. Physical limits include access to resources and the carrying capacity of an ecosystem. Environmental limits include the impact of population growth on climate change, biodiversity and other environmental problems. Socio-economic limits include poverty, inequality, poor education, healthcare, and inadequate infrastructure. Understanding these limits is important for ensuring that the population can live sustainably and enjoy a high quality of life.

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