- AS, A-Level
- AQA, Edexcel, OCR, IB
Last updated 27 Aug 2017
Non-participation is the absence of citizens from the political process.
The central measure of non-participation is concerned with those registered to vote who choose not to, which is measured by ‘turnout’.
However, other forms of non-participation reflect the alternative opportunities to participate in the politics, which can include membership of political parties and membership of pressure groups.