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Economic Integration between Countries

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Last updated 31 Oct 2019

In this video we work through the different stages of economic integration between countries.

Economic Integration between Countries

Nations might decide to deepen their economic ties for example through membership of a customs union or single market. Or they might opt to widen their integration by bringing more countries into an arrangement.

The issue of integration at a macro level has heightened in importance given the UK’s vote to leave the European Union.

Here are the main types of integration that we will look at. There are some interesting examples to look at from emerging and developing countries – to what extent can economic integration act as a catalyst for increased trade and investment and stronger rates of economic growth and development?

  • Single Market
  • Customs Union
  • Free Trade Area FTA)
  • Monetary Union
  • Preferential Trade Agreement

Free Trade Areas

  • US – Mexico – Canada Trade Agreement
  • African Continental Free Trade Agreement
  • EU-Canada Free Trade Agreement
  • EU-Japanese Free Trade Agreement
  • US-South Korea Free Trade Agreement

Customs Unions

A customs union comprises countries which agree to abolish tariffs and quotas between member nations to encourage free movement of goods and services. A customs union also adopt a common external tariff (CET) on imports from non-members countries.

  • European Union Customs Union
  • Southern African Customs Union
  • Eurasian Customs Union

Single markets

Single markets aim to achieve

  • Free movement of labour
  • Free trade in goods
  • Free trade in services
  • Free movement of capital

Examples include:

  • European Union

Monetary Union

Monetary union involves countries sharing a single currency. Examples include:

  • Euro
  • West African Monetary Union (CFA Franc)
  • Eastern Caribbean Currency Union

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