Weimar & Nazi Germany (1918-39) - Timeline of Key Events
- AQA, Edexcel, OCR
Last updated 20 Jan 2019
Here is a summary timeline of key events GCSE for students covering Weimar & Nazi Germany (1918-39).
9th November 1918: Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates his throne
The Emperor of Germany leaves after initially refusing to agree to surrender. After several protests and a mutiny of German sailors in Kiel, he leaves Germany for the Netherlands.
11th November 1918: The Armistice is signed
Germany signs an armistice, bringing an end to the fighting.
5th-12th January 1919: The Spartacist Uprising
The Spartacist League hold an uprising in Berlin. Leaders include Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. The Freikorps suppress the rebellion.
February-June 1919: Weimar National Assembly established
The first Assembly of the Weimar Republic is established and drafts the Constitution. Friedrich Ebert is elected President.
28th June 1919: Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles
Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles - the peace treaty that ends the First World War.
11th August 1919: The Weimar Constitution is signed
The Constitution of the Weimar Republic is signed and introduces much greater democracy.
13th March 1920: The Kapp Putsch
A revolt in Berlin led by Wolfgang Kapp supported by the Freikorps. A strike brings the Putsch to an end.
11th January 1923: Occupation of the Ruhr
French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr industrial region as Germany had stopped paying reparations.
1923: Hyperinflation begins
Prices begin to rise rapidly made worse by the printing of money to pay striking workers in the Ruhr. The Reichsmark becomes worthless.
13th August 1923: Stresemann becomes Chancellor and Foreign Minister
Gustav Stresemann becomes Chancellor and Foreign Minister.
8th November 1923: The Munich Putsch
The Nazis attempt a failed putsch in Munich. Hitler is sent to Landsberg prison for his role in it.
August 1924: The Dawes Plan
The agreement helps Germany with its reparations.
18th July 1925: Mein Kampf published
Mein Kampf, Hitler’s book is published with his ideas for Germany.
16th October 1925: The Locarno Pact
Germany agrees to the border set out in the Treaty of Versailles.
14th February 1926: The Bamberg Conference
Hitler meets with leading Nazis to reorganize the party and cement his authority.
8th September 1926: Germany joins the League of Nations
Germany is admitted to the League of Nations. This had been prohibited under the Treaty of Versailles.
27th August 1928: Kellogg-Briand Pact agreed
The Kellogg-Briand Pact binds nations into an agreement not to use war as a method of solving disputes.
31st August 1929: Young Plan agreed
The Young Plan significantly reduces German reparations and gives Germany longer to pay them.
3rd October 1929: Gustav Stresemann dies
Former Chancellor and Foreign Minister who helped the Weimar Republic recover, dies of a stroke.
29th October 1929: Wall Street Crash
The US Stock market crashes triggering events that lead to the Great Depression in the 1930s.
31st July 1932: Nazis largest party in the Reichstag
The Nazis win 230 seats in the Reichstag election making them the largest party. 37% of voters support Hitler and the Nazis.
30th January 1933: Hitler appointed Chancellor
Hitler is appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg.
27th February 1933: Reichstag Fire
Fire rips through the Reichstag building and Dutch Communist Van der Lubbe is arrested and executed for starting it.
28th February 1933: Reichstag Fire decree
The Nazis use the fire to pass a decree banning the Communist Party and suspending some civil liberties.
23rd March 1933: The Enabling Act passes the Reichstag
The Enabling Act gives Hitler complete authority in Germany.
1st April 1933: Boycott of Jewish shops and businesses
The Nazis organise a boycott of Jewish shops and businesses. The SA are used to intimidate customers.
26th April 1933: Establishment of the Gestapo
The official secret police of Nazi Germany is created by Hermann Göring.
20th July 1933: Concordat with the Catholic Church
The Nazis and Catholic Church sign an agreement to leave each other alone.
30th June 1934: Night of the Long Knives
Hitler removes enemies of the party through a purge of critics. Victims include Ernst Röhm (the Head of the SA) and other leading Nazis.
2nd August 1934: Death of President Hindenburg
Hindenburg dies of Lung Cancer. Hitler proclaims the merging of the roles of Chancellor and President. Hitler is undisputed ruler of Germany.
15th September 1935: Nuremberg Laws
The Nazis pass the Nuremberg Laws which restrict freedoms for Jews and seek to define a Jew.
Summer 1936: Berlin Olympics
Berlin stages the Olympic Games which become a propaganda tool. Hitler is embarrassed when US Athlete Jesse Owens wins Gold.
9th November 1938: Kristallnacht
A night of violence across Germany against Jews. SS members riot and destroy synagogues and Jewish businesses
1st September 1939: Second World War begins
Germany invades Poland under the terms of the Nazi Soviet Pact. Britain and France declare war on Germany two days later.