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Study notes

Weimar & Nazi Germany (1918-39) - Timeline of Key Events

  • Levels: GCSE
  • Exam boards: AQA, Edexcel, OCR

Here is a summary timeline of key events GCSE for students covering Weimar & Nazi Germany (1918-39).

RECOMMENDED REVISION GUIDE FOR EDEXCEL GCSE HISTORY: WEIMAR & NAZI GERMANY (1918-39)

9th November 1918: Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates his throne

The Emperor of Germany leaves after initially refusing to agree to surrender. After several protests and a mutiny of German sailors in Kiel, he leaves Germany for the Netherlands.

11th November 1918: The Armistice is signed

Germany signs an armistice, bringing an end to the fighting.

5th-12th January 1919: The Spartacist Uprising

The Spartacist League hold an uprising in Berlin. Leaders include Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. The Freikorps suppress the rebellion.

February-June 1919: Weimar National Assembly established

The first Assembly of the Weimar Republic is established and drafts the Constitution. Friedrich Ebert is elected President.

28th June 1919: Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles

Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles - the peace treaty that ends the First World War.

11th August 1919: The Weimar Constitution is signed

The Constitution of the Weimar Republic is signed and introduces much greater democracy.

13th March 1920: The Kapp Putsch

A revolt in Berlin led by Wolfgang Kapp supported by the Freikorps. A strike brings the Putsch to an end.

11th January 1923: Occupation of the Ruhr

French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr industrial region as Germany had stopped paying reparations.

1923: Hyperinflation begins

Prices begin to rise rapidly made worse by the printing of money to pay striking workers in the Ruhr. The Reichsmark becomes worthless.

13th August 1923: Stresemann becomes Chancellor and Foreign Minister

Gustav Stresemann becomes Chancellor and Foreign Minister.

8th November 1923: The Munich Putsch

The Nazis attempt a failed putsch in Munich. Hitler is sent to Landsberg prison for his role in it.

August 1924: The Dawes Plan

The agreement helps Germany with its reparations.

18th July 1925: Mein Kampf published

Mein Kampf, Hitler’s book is published with his ideas for Germany.

16th October 1925: The Locarno Pact

Germany agrees to the border set out in the Treaty of Versailles.

14th February 1926: The Bamberg Conference

Hitler meets with leading Nazis to reorganize the party and cement his authority.

8th September 1926: Germany joins the League of Nations

Germany is admitted to the League of Nations. This had been prohibited under the Treaty of Versailles.

27th August 1928: Kellogg-Briand Pact agreed

The Kellogg-Briand Pact binds nations into an agreement not to use war as a method of solving disputes.

31st August 1929: Young Plan agreed

The Young Plan significantly reduces German reparations and gives Germany longer to pay them.

3rd October 1929: Gustav Stresemann dies

Former Chancellor and Foreign Minister who helped the Weimar Republic recover, dies of a stroke.

29th October 1929: Wall Street Crash

The US Stock market crashes triggering events that lead to the Great Depression in the 1930s.

31st July 1932: Nazis largest party in the Reichstag

The Nazis win 230 seats in the Reichstag election making them the largest party. 37% of voters support Hitler and the Nazis.

30th January 1933: Hitler appointed Chancellor

Hitler is appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg.

27th February 1933: Reichstag Fire

Fire rips through the Reichstag building and Dutch Communist Van der Lubbe is arrested and executed for starting it.

28th February 1933: Reichstag Fire decree

The Nazis use the fire to pass a decree banning the Communist Party and suspending some civil liberties.

23rd March 1933: The Enabling Act passes the Reichstag

The Enabling Act gives Hitler complete authority in Germany.

1st April 1933: Boycott of Jewish shops and businesses

The Nazis organise a boycott of Jewish shops and businesses. The SA are used to intimidate customers.

26th April 1933: Establishment of the Gestapo

The official secret police of Nazi Germany is created by Hermann Göring.

20th July 1933: Concordat with the Catholic Church

The Nazis and Catholic Church sign an agreement to leave each other alone.

30th June 1934: Night of the Long Knives

Hitler removes enemies of the party through a purge of critics. Victims include Ernst Röhm (the Head of the SA) and other leading Nazis.

2nd August 1934: Death of President Hindenburg

Hindenburg dies of Lung Cancer. Hitler proclaims the merging of the roles of Chancellor and President. Hitler is undisputed ruler of Germany.

15th September 1935: Nuremberg Laws

The Nazis pass the Nuremberg Laws which restrict freedoms for Jews and seek to define a Jew.

Summer 1936: Berlin Olympics

Berlin stages the Olympic Games which become a propaganda tool. Hitler is embarrassed when US Athlete Jesse Owens wins Gold.

9th November 1938: Kristallnacht

A night of violence across Germany against Jews. SS members riot and destroy synagogues and Jewish businesses

1st September 1939: Second World War begins

Germany invades Poland under the terms of the Nazi Soviet Pact. Britain and France declare war on Germany two days later.

RECOMMENDED REVISION GUIDE FOR EDEXCEL GCSE HISTORY: WEIMAR & NAZI GERMANY (1918-39)

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