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Under-employment refers to a situation where an individual is working, but their job does not fully utilize their skills or abilities, and/or does not provide sufficient hours or pay to meet their needs. Under-employment can occur for a variety of reasons, and can take many different forms. Some examples of under-employment include:

  • Part-time work: An individual may be working part-time, but would prefer to work full-time. This may be because full-time positions are not available, or because the individual is unable to find a full-time job that meets their needs or preferences.
  • Temporary work: An individual may be working a temporary job, which may not provide the same level of stability or benefits as a permanent position.
  • Over-qualification: An individual may have a high level of education or experience, but may be unable to find a job that matches their qualifications, and may be forced to take a lower-paying or lower-skilled job as a result.
  • Underemployment: An individual may be working in a job that does not fully utilize their skills or abilities. For example, a highly-educated engineer may be working as a bartender because they are unable to find a job in their field.

Under-employment can be a source of frustration and financial strain for individuals, as they may not be able to earn enough money to meet their needs or achieve their career goals.

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