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Last updated 15 Jan 2023
Land Grabs have become an important and controversial issue in development economics in recent years
A land grab, also known as land grabbing, is the acquisition of large areas of land, usually by foreign investors or governments, for agricultural or other commercial purposes. This can include the purchase or lease of land for the production of crops, the establishment of mining operations, or the development of real estate projects.
Recent examples of land grabs include:
- In Ethiopia, the government has leased large areas of land to foreign companies, primarily from India and Saudi Arabia, for the production of crops like sugarcane and biofuels.
- In Cambodia, land has been acquired by foreign companies and governments, primarily from China and Vietnam, for the production of crops like rubber and palm oil.
- In Mozambique, land has been acquired by foreign companies and governments, primarily from China, for the production of crops like sugarcane and biofuels.
- In Liberia, land has been acquired by foreign companies and governments, primarily from India, for the production of crops like rubber and oil palm.
- In Tanzania, land has been acquired by foreign companies and governments, primarily from China, for the production of crops like sugarcane and biofuels.
Critics of land grabbing argue that these acquisitions often result in the displacement of local communities, the destruction of ecosystems, and the depletion of natural resources. They also point out that these acquisitions are often made under opaque, non-transparent and non-consultative processes.
Throughout the world, it is estimated that 445 million hectares of land are uncultivated and available for farming, compared with about 1.5 billion hectares already under cultivation. About 201 million hectares are in sub-Saharan Africa. Only 10% of Africa’s rural land is registered.
The vast majority of land deals are for agricultural projects. Forestry is the next largest sector. Of the agricultural deals, fewer than 30% are for food crops alone. Almost 20% are for non-food crops such as bio-fuels and livestock feed.
Arguments in favour of land purchases
The buying of land by transnational investors / companies is viewed favorably by some economists. They see it as an opportunity to reverse under-investment in developing countries’ agricultural sectors, to create new jobs, and to bring improved technology to local farming industries that will boost productivity, raise farm incomes and reduce the extreme poverty.
Criticisms of land grabs
Opponents of “land grabs,” argue that transnational land buyers neglect local rights and do not pay a fair price for the land. They seek to extract short-term profits at the cost of long-term environmental sustainability. They claim that land grabs are closely connected to corruption on a large scale. Another argument is that selling thousands of hectares to large-scale investors hurts small-scale farmers. Mechanized farming reduces employment in labour-intensive farming and can accelerate forced migration into urban areas.
A report published by Oxfam in 2011 claimed that much of the farm land bought by western investors in recent years has been left idle or given over to bio-fuel production for motorists in rich nations instead of being used to grow food and reduce malnutrition among the poorest communities
According to development economist Professor Paul Collier there are two main types of land grab:
- Pioneer commercial investment: buying unused land at low prices to see if it is viable for production; risky but high-gain. Increases factor productivity; if successful, draws others – as such, it should be encouraged because there is a net benefit
- Speculative acquisition of large areas of useless land: may not stay useless – it has an option value. The investor hopes that the land will become useful in the long run (e.g. because of climate issues), causing the market value to rise.
Paul Collier believes that the 1st type is beneficial to developing countries but the 2nd is not. Some countries are introducing legislation to place barriers to foreign buyers of land.
From 2013, Tanzania is restricting the size of land that single large-scale foreign and local investors can "lease" for agricultural use. The vast majority of Tanzanian small-scale farmers do not have legal protection for their property. Tanzania has an estimated population of 42 million people and 12,000 villages, but only 0.02% of its citizens have traditional land ownership titles.