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Gross National Income

AS, A-Level, IB
AQA, Edexcel, OCR, IB, Eduqas, WJEC

Last updated 18 Dec 2022

Gross National Income (GNI) is an alternative to gross domestic product (GDP) as a measure of wealth. It calculates income instead of output.

What is Gross National Income (GNI)?

Gross National Income (GNI) is the total amount of money earned by a nation's people and businesses in a given period (usually a year).

How is Gross National Income calculated?

Gross National Income =
Gross Domestic Product
+ net income from abroad of compensation of employees and property income

Why is GNI significantly different for some countries contrasted with their GDP?

For some countries, GNI is augmented by:

  • Income from worker remittances
  • Income from interest on bonds and savings held overseas
  • Income from dividends on profits from overseas investment
  • Overseas aid transfers (inflows) for poorer countries

Which countries have the highest GNI per capita?

(Data is in real terms at constant 2017 prices)

  • Liechtenstein: $146,830
  • Singapore: $90,919
  • Qatar: $87,134
  • Luxembourg: $84,649
  • Ireland: $76,169
  • Switzerland: $66,933
  • United States: $64,765
  • Norway: $64,660

Which countries have the lowest GNI per capita?

(Data is in real terms at constant 2017 prices)

  • Burundi $732
  • South Sudan $768
  • Central African Republic $966
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) $1,076
  • Mozambique $1,198
  • Niger $1,240
  • Liberia $1,289
  • Yemen $1,314
  • Chad $1,364
Gross National Income

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