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Study Notes Specialisation, division of labour and exchange (AQA Economics)


Last updated 16 Dec 2023

This study note for AQA Economics covers specialisation, division of labour and exchange.


  • Definition:
    • Specialisation involves individuals or firms focusing on a specific task or activity in which they have a comparative advantage.
  • Benefits: a. Increased Efficiency
    1. Workers become more skilled and efficient in a specific task
    2. Example: A car factory where each worker specializes in a particular aspect, like assembling doors.
  • b. Higher Productivity:

    • Division of tasks reduces the time spent switching between different activities.
    • Example: A chef specializing in dessert preparation can produce more desserts in less time.

    c. Economies of Scale:

    • Mass production of a specific task leads to cost savings.
    • Example: Large-scale manufacturing of smartphones reduces the cost per unit.

Division of Labour:

  1. Definition:
    • Division of Labour refers to breaking down a production process into smaller tasks, with each worker specialising in one.
  2. Advantages: a. Expertise:
    • Workers become experts in their assigned tasks.
    • Example: In an IT company, programmers specialize in coding, while designers focus on creating interfaces.

    b. Time Savings:

    • Reduces the time spent on task-switching.
    • Example: In a restaurant, specialized kitchen staff can prepare meals more efficiently.

    c. Innovation:

    • Specialization can lead to innovative methods and improvements in a specific area.
    • Example: Specialized researchers contribute to advancements in medical treatments.

Importance of Efficient Exchange:

  1. Definition:
    • Efficient Exchange ensures that goods and services move from those who produce them to those who value them the most.
  2. Need for Medium of Exchange:
    • In a highly specialized economy, direct barter becomes impractical.
    • Example: A baker who specializes in bread may find it challenging to directly exchange bread for a computer from a specialized computer producer.
  3. Role of Money:
    • Money serves as a medium of exchange, facilitating transactions and overcoming the limitations of barter.

Real-World Example - Role of Money:

  • International Trade: Nations engage in specialized production and use currency as a medium of exchange. For instance, a country specializing in technology can sell its products globally and use the earned currency to purchase goods it doesn't produce efficiently.

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