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Study Notes Production and Productivity (AQA Economics)

AS, A-Level, IB

Last updated 16 Dec 2023

This AQA Economics study note covers Production and Productivity


  • Production is the process of converting inputs, including the services of factors of production such as capital and labour, into final output.

Factors of Production:

  1. Land:
    • Refers to natural resources used in production.
    • Example: Agricultural land, oil reserves.
  2. Labour:
    • Human effort involved in the production process.
    • Example: Factory workers, software developers.
  3. Capital:
    • Man-made resources used to produce goods and services.
    • Example: Machinery, buildings, technology.
  4. Entrepreneurship:
    • Involves the organization of factors of production to create goods and services.
    • Example: Elon Musk founding SpaceX.

Types of Production:

  1. Primary Production:
    • Extracting raw materials from the earth.
    • Example: Mining, agriculture.
  2. Secondary Production:
    • Manufacturing raw materials into finished goods.
    • Example: Car manufacturing, textile production.
  3. Tertiary Production:
    • Providing services.
    • Example: Healthcare, education.

Production Functions:

  1. Linear Production Function:
    • Output increases proportionally with inputs.
    • Formula: Q=a+b⋅L+c⋅KQ=a+b⋅L+c⋅K
      • QQ: Output
      • LL: Labour input
      • KK: Capital input


  • Productivity is a measure of the efficiency with which inputs are transformed into outputs.

Types of Productivity:

  1. Labour Productivity:
    • Output per unit of labor input.
    • Formula: Labour Productivity = Output of Labour Input
    • Example: If a factory produces 1,000 units with 50 workers, labor productivity is 1,000/50 = 20 units per worker.

Importance of Productivity:

  1. Economic Growth:
    • Higher productivity contributes to economic growth.
    • Example: Countries with increased labor productivity experience higher GDP growth.
  2. Competitiveness:
    • Productive firms can offer lower prices or higher quality.
    • Example: Tech companies constantly improving productivity to stay competitive.
  3. Standard of Living:
    • Increased productivity can lead to higher wages and improved living standards.
    • Example: Automation in manufacturing leading to higher incomes for skilled workers.

Real-World Examples:

  1. Toyota Production System:
    • Application of lean production principles to maximize efficiency.
    • Example: Reduced waste in production, leading to higher productivity.
  2. Amazon Robotics:
    • Implementation of robots in warehouses to improve order fulfillment.
    • Example: Increased order processing speed and reduced errors.
  3. Singapore's Economic Growth:
    • Emphasis on education and technology to boost productivity.
    • Example: Transformation from a labour-intensive to a knowledge-based economy.

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