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Ethnicity (Beliefs)

Ethnicity has been argued to affect whether an individual is more likely to adhere or join a religious institution. There has been a range of theories providing an explanation regarding the differing levels of participation. Bruce (1995) argues that some groups use religion as way of cultural defence and transition within an alien community. These two mechanisms enable the individual to protect their identity in a hostile environment and as a way of coping with the movement away from their home nation. In the 2011 census it is noted that white British individuals are more likely to identify as religious and non-religious. However, it was ultimately seen within the data that other ethnicities are collectively more religious and are gaining followers whilst White British religious participation rates dropped by 5.6 million people.

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