The Millennium Development Goals represent a set of development targets established in 2000 and designed to be met as fully as possible by the end of 2015. A new set of goals is being developed.
The key goals areEradicate extreme poverty and hungerAchieve universal primary educationPromote gender equality and empower womenReduce child mortalityImprove maternal healthCombat HIV / AIDS, malaria and other diseasesEnsure environmental sustainabilityDevelop a global partnership for development
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Target: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day
|% of population living on less than $1.25 a day||1990||2008|
|Southern Asia (including India)||52||26|
|Latin America and the Caribbean||12||6|
|Developing regions (excluding China)||41||28|
To fight extreme poverty the World Bank in 2012 reported five key areas that need to be given extra focus.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Target: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. More than half of all out-of-school children are in sub-Saharan Africa.
Progress has been made in lifting school enrolment rates for primary and secondary education although the pace of improvement has slowed in recent years. In developing regions, the enrolment rate for children of primary school age rose from 82 to 90 per cent between 1999 and 2010.
There was a steep rise for Sub-Saharan Africa with enrolment rates jumping from 58% to 78% despite a rise in the size of the primary school age population. 70% of pupils completed their primary education but more progress is needed to address the percentage of girls who are out of school – this links to the MDG goal which focuses on gender opportunities. Only six African countries recorded primary completion rates of 90 percent and above in 2009.
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Target: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people
Target: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015
|Gender parity index for enrolment in different stages of education (Data is for 2010), Girls per 100 boys||Developed Regions||Developing Regions|
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
Target: Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
|Under-five mortality rate, 1990 and 2010 (Deaths per 1,000 live births)||1990||2010|
|Latin America and the Caribbean||54||23|
There has been a 35 per cent drop in child mortality rates and currently, 41 countries are poised to reach the MDG target of a 2/3rd reduction in under-5 mortality rates by 2015. Despite this progress there are several areas of crucial concern:
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
Target: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
|Maternal mortality, (Maternal deaths per 100 000 live births, women aged 15-49)||1990||2010|
In 2010, 32 women per hour died as a result of giving birth. The global burden of maternal death has fallen sharply with a reduction of 47 per cent since 1990 – but the maternal mortality ratio in developing regions was still 15 times higher than in developed regions. One in ten maternal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa was attributed to the effects of HIV-aids. There has been a ten per cent rise over twenty years in the percentage of birth deliveries attended by skilled doctors, nurses or mid-wives (65% in 2010) but this figure drops to less than half in Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
Target: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
HIV / AIDS
Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Target: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources
One of the pressing issues with this goal is the target to improve access to clean water and sanitation:
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