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Study Notes Price Discrimination (AQA Economics)


Last updated 18 Dec 2023

This AQA Economics Study Note covers Price Discrimination.

Topic: Conditions Necessary for Price Discrimination


  • Price discrimination refers to the practice of charging different prices to different customers for the same good or service, based on their willingness to pay.

Conditions for Price Discrimination:

  1. Market Power:
    • Explanation: The firm must have some degree of market power, allowing it to influence prices.
    • Economic Concept: Market power is associated with monopolies or firms with significant market share.
  2. Identifiable Market Segments:
    • Explanation: The firm must be able to identify and separate customers into distinct groups with different elasticities of demand.
    • Example: Airlines differentiate between business and leisure travelers, each with different price sensitivities.
  3. Prevent Resale:
    • Explanation: Measures must be in place to prevent customers from reselling the product at a lower price to those who are unwilling to pay more.
    • Example: Software companies often use licensing agreements to restrict resale and ensure price discrimination.

Real-world Contextual Example:

  • Disney theme parks implement price discrimination by charging different admission fees for adults and children. This is based on the recognition that families with children are often willing to pay more for the experience.

Topic: Advantages and Disadvantages of Price Discrimination


  1. Increased Profits:
    • Explanation: Price discrimination allows firms to capture consumer surplus, maximizing overall revenue and profit.
    • Economic Concept: By extracting more consumer surplus, the firm can move closer to the monopoly outcome.
  2. Improved Resource Allocation:
    • Explanation: Price discrimination can lead to a more efficient allocation of resources by matching prices with consumers' willingness to pay.
    • Example: Movie theaters offering discounts for daytime screenings fill empty seats during off-peak hours.
  3. Consumer Surplus Utilization:
    • Explanation: Price discrimination can convert consumer surplus into producer surplus, benefiting both the firm and consumers.
    • Economic Concept: Efficient use of resources contributes to economic welfare.


  1. Equity Concerns:
    • Explanation: Critics argue that price discrimination can be unfair as it charges different prices to different customers for the same product.
    • Example: Pharmaceutical companies charging higher prices for life-saving drugs in wealthier countries than in less affluent ones.
  2. Complex Implementation:
    • Explanation: Implementing price discrimination strategies can be administratively complex, requiring effective segmentation and monitoring.
    • Economic Concept: Administrative costs can reduce the overall efficiency of the market.
  3. Consumer Dissatisfaction:
    • Explanation: Customers who discover they are paying more for the same product may become dissatisfied, leading to reputational risks.
    • Example: Complaints about airline passengers sitting side-by-side but paying different fares for the same journey.

Real-world Contextual Example:

  • Software companies often offer different versions of their products at various price points, catering to different segments of consumers. While this maximizes profits, it may lead to consumer dissatisfaction if perceived as unfair.

Glossary of Key Terms:

  1. Price Discrimination:
    • Charging different prices to different customers for the same good or service based on their willingness to pay.
  2. Market Power:
    • The ability of a firm to influence prices in the market, often associated with monopolies or firms with significant market share.
  3. Elasticity of Demand:
    • A measure of how responsive the quantity demanded of a good is to changes in price.
  4. Consumer Surplus:
    • The difference between what a consumer is willing to pay for a good and what the consumer actually pays.
  5. Producer Surplus:
    • The difference between the price a producer receives for a good and the minimum price they are willing to accept.
  6. Equity Concerns:
    • Concerns related to the fairness of economic outcomes, including the distribution of benefits and burdens.
  7. Administrative Costs:
    • The costs associated with implementing and maintaining certain economic activities, such as price discrimination strategies.

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