There are two broad approaches to studying police and policing in sociology: consensus policing and conflict policing. Conflict policing is a Marxist perspective and one that sees the police not as a part of the community but as a hostile outside force. Studies that support this model come from the 1980s when military-style policing was evident both in Northern Ireland and during the 84/85 miners' strike. It is also applicable to the way certain neighbourhoods become "no go areas" for the police and therefore when there is a police presence it is often in large numbers, in armoured vehicles or in riot gear. In this perspective the police are working directly in the interests of the ruling class and against the interests of the working class whom they are policing.
Social Control: Police Discretion
Social Control: Police and Policing