An anti-school subculture was identified by the Marxist sociologist Paul Willis in his famous study "Learning to Labour" where a group of working-class male pupils ("the Lads") subverted the values of the school: for them academic success was frowned upon while "mucking about" was rewarded. They identified themselves in opposition to the ear'oles (those who conformed to the school's expectations who might be considered a pro-school subculture. Other sociologists have identified various subcultures within schools and have explored a range of reasons for why these subcultures form.

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