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Proximity

Proximity is a situational variable affecting obedience and refers to how close you are to someone or something. In Milgram’s experiment proximity worked on numerous levels: how close the teacher was to the learner, and how close the teacher was to the experimenter. Milgram found that proximity affected levels of obedience. When the teacher and learner were in the same room, the percentage of participants who administered the full 450-volt shock fell from 65% to 40%. He also found that when the experimenter left the room and gave the instructions over the telephone, obedience levels fell to 20.5%.

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