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Anarchism, which advocates the complete overthrow of government or any source of authority, was a highly influential political ideology in Spain in the early twentieth century. The repressive nature of Primo de Rivera's dictatorship and the failure of the governments of the Second Republic to deliver effective reform allowed for the rise of the anarchist movement. The National Confederation of Workers (CNT) was the main anarchist organisation and by 1931 had around 1.4 million members. Anarchists within the CNT organised strikes and created unrest throughout the period of the Second Republic which proved to be a major problem for governments to contend with.

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