Study notes

Bartlett & Ghoshal Model of International Strategy

  • Levels: A Level
  • Exam boards: AQA, IB

The Bartlett & Ghoshal Model indicates the strategic options for businesses wanting to manage their international operations based on two pressures: local responsiveness & global integration.

Bartlett & Ghoshal's model is explained in the short revision video below and in the study notes further down this page.

Bartlett & Ghoshal - International Strategies (Revision Video)
Bartlett & Ghoshal Model of International Strategy

The two "pressures" or forces on firms wanting to compete in international markets, which determine the four grids in the box above are:

Force for local responsiveness

This considers questions such as:

  • Do customers in each country expect the product to be adapted to meet local requirements?
  • Do local (domestic competitors) have an advantage based on their ability to be more responsive?

Force for global integration

This considers questions such as:
  • How important is standardisation of the product in order to operate efficiently (e.g. economies of scale)?
  • Is consistent global branding required in order to achieve international success?

The key features of each box in the Bartlett & Ghoshal model are outlined below:

Bartlett & Ghoshal - Global Strategy
Bartlett & Ghoshal - Transnational Strategy
Bartlett & Ghoshal - International Strategy
Bartlett & Ghoshal - Multi-Domestic Strategy


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