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The defence of diminished responsibility, like the defence of provocation, was introduced in the Homicide Act 1957 and is contained in s2(1).

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Diminished Responsibility

There are two types of contract, depending upon the nature of the consideration that is exchanged, contracts are identified as either bilateral or unilateral.

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Types of Contract | Bilateral and Unilateral

Formation of contract involves the elements that must be proved in order to establish an agreement that is enforceable by law (a contract).

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Formation of Contract

The law of contract is a civil area of law which regulates the creation and performance of contractual obligations between two private parties.

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Introduction to Contract Law

The case determined that where acceptance is sent by post, in accordance with the postal rules, acceptance is effective at the point of posting, it does not matter if the...

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Key Case | Household Fire v Grant (1879) | Formation of Contract - Postal Acceptance

The case established that it is possible to specify the manner in which acceptance must be communicated, however if this is a direction rather than a mandatory requirement, if the...

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Key Case | Yates v Pulleyn (1975) | Formation of Contract - Method of Acceptance

Where an offeror promises to keep an offer open for a certain amount of time, the offer can be revoked if this is just a promise, not a separate contract,...

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Key Case | Dickinson v Dodds (1876) | Formation of Contract - Revocation of an Offer

Where an offeree seeks to accept an offer, but when doing so simultaneously adds additional terms, this is not acceptance but rather a counter-offer, whereby no acceptance takes place, and...

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Key Case | Jones v Daniel (1894) | Formation of Contract - Counter-offer

An auctioneer does not make a contractual offer when advertising lots that appear in his auction catalogue, thus there is no claim when they do not advertise them for sale...

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Key Case | Harris v Nickerson (1873) | Formation of Contract - Offers at Auctions

Under the ordinary law of contract, the court determined, that the display of an article with a price on it in a shop window is an invitation to treat and...

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Key Case | Fisher v Bell (1961) | Formation of Contract - Invitation to Treat

A case example of where an advertisement proposes terms with certainty and sincerity, this may amount to an offer, it is possible to make an offer to the whole world.

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Key Case | Carlill v Carbollic Smoke Ball Co (1893) | Formation of Contract - Unilateral Offer

For a valid offer to be proven, the offeror must communicate the offer to the offeree, an offeree cannot accept an offer they are not aware of. In this case,...

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Key Case | Taylor v Laird (1856) | Formation of Contract - Communication of Offer

The defence of contributory negligence can apply in circumstances where it is proven that the unreasonableness of the claimant only increased the severity of the injury.

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Key Case | Stanton v Collinson (2010) | Contributory Negligence

A defendant’s damage may be reduced where it can be proven that their own unreasonable behaviour contributed to their harm, this can include unreasonableness produced by the consumption of...

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Key Case | Brannon v Airtours (1999) | Contributory Negligence - Defences

Where a tortfeasor’s field of activity is clearly not associated with their tortious actions, a claim fails the close connection test and vicarious liability cannot be imposed.

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Key Case | Shelborne v CRUK (2019) | Vicarious Liability - Frolic of Their Own

Where an employee undertakes an act strictly prohibited by their employer, this does not prevent liability being imposed on the employer vicariously where the act is clearly still during the...

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Key Case | Rose v Plenty (1976) | Vicarious Liability - In the Course of Employment


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