Study Notes

The Munich Putsch (1923)

AQA, Edexcel, OCR, Eduqas, WJEC

The Munich Putsch was an armed rebellion by the NSDAP which aimed to establish a dictatorship in the Bavarian city of Munich. The overall aim of the putsch was to overthrow the Weimar Republic.

On the 8th November 1923, the leaders of the regional Bavarian Government were speaking at a beer hall in Munich. Hitler and the Nazis took over the beer hall claiming they had taken over the government and would use the putsch to take Berlin and Germany. Hitler used his connections with General Erich Ludendorff who would become head of the German Army in Hitler’s new Germany.

Whilst Hitler was subduing the leaders of Bavaria, Röhm and the SA had taken over the headquarters of the Police and Army. However, the Nazis had neglected to take control of the Army barracks which still supported the Bavarian government. Ludendorff undermined the putsch by letting the leaders of the Bavarian government go home. The following morning Hitler attempted to take the streets of Munich, however the release of Bavarian leaders meant the regional government was better prepared for the Nazis and used the Army to suppress the putsch.

Hitler had miscalculated the support that the Nazis would have in the putsch. Many locals did not support the Nazis and he had failed to get the Army to support him. The putsch ended with a stand-off between the Army, Police and the Nazis. Gunfire was exchanged, and the putsch defeated. Hitler escaped but was subsequently found and arrested.


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