The Sally-Anne study was conducted by Simon Baron-Cohen to test for theory of mind in three groups of children: those with autism, those with Down’s syndrome and a control group with no developmental disorder. The study involved showing the children a story involving two dolls called Sally and Anne. They were shown Sally putting her ball in a basket and leaving the room. While she was out of the room, Anne moved the ball from the basket to her box. When Sally came back, the child was asked where Sally would look for her ball and if they had developed theory of mind, they would say in the basket because that is where Sally left it and she did not know it has been moved. Most of the control group and most of the children with Down’s syndrome gave the correct answer, but only 20% of those with autism provided the right answer.

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