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GCSE / iGCSE Business Studies Revision Notes

Author: Jim Riley  Last updated: Sunday 23 September, 2012

Enterprise and Entrepreneurs
What is enterprise? Objectives of a business startup
Qualities of an entrepreneur Sources of new business ideas
Risks and rewards of enterprise Creative thinking by entrepreneurs
Invention Innovation
Planning a startup Contents of a startup business plan
Franchising for startups Social enterprise
Adding value Beating the competition as a new business
Business Organisation & Objectives
Aims and objectives of business Starting a business
Departments in a business Financing a new business
Growing a business Sole traders
Partnerships Limited companies
Franchises Co-operatives
Span of control Stakeholders and ethics

The External Environment

Introduction to the external environment Economic sectors
The Business / Economic cycle Business and globalisation
Government spending Government taxation
Exchange rates Interest rates - introduction
Interest rates & business Business & the Environment
Labour market and unemployment Business and the law
Business and technology Business ethics - introduction
Business ethics in practice Europe and business
What is marketing ? Kinds of market
Marketing orientation Market segmentation - introduction
Marketing's role in business Market segments
Market mapping Understanding customers
Marketing strategy - introduction The marketing mix
How products are distributed Marketing online - E-commerce
Distribution channels Distribution intermediaries
Personal selling  
Introduction to products Brands
Product life cycle Product portfolio - the Boston Matrix
Product differentiation & USPs SWOT analysis & marketing
Promotion - introduction & overview  
Promotion - advertising Promotion - direct marketing
Promotion - sales promotion Public relations and sponsorship
Marketing research - introduction  
Marketing research - questionnaires Marketing research - primary research
Quantitative & qualitative market research  
Pricing - introduction Pricing strategies
Pricing objectives  
Introduction to finance Why businesses need finance
Startups - finance considerations Startups - Personal sources of entrepreneurs
Startup - cash flow problems Causes of cash flow problems
Handling a cash flow problem  
Understanding demand Understanding business revenues
Introduction to cash flow The cash flow forecast
Estimating revenues  
What is profit? How is profit used by a business?
How a business handles a loss  

Business costs - overview  
Breakeven< Breakeven and contribution
Analysing financial performance
Balance sheet Profit and Loss account
Sources of finance Bank loans and overdrafts
Shares as a source of finance Other external sources of finance
Depreciation Why businesses need credit
Managing People in a Business
Communication in a business Effective communication
Communication barriers Management styles
Employee representation Functions in a business
Organisation structures and charts Span of control
Centralisation Decentralisation
Motivating employees - introduction Motivation - financial rewards
Methods of pay Staff retention
Motivation - non financial rewards Motivation - main theories
Recruitment - introduction Recruitment - methods
Recruitment - interviews

Recruitment - job applications
Recruitment - workforce planning Appraisal
Groups at work - trade unions Handling industrial disputes
Training - introduction Training - types of training
Employment legislation  
Production and Operations
Choosing a business location Stages of production
Economies of scale Diseconomies of scale
Production efficiency Improving business efficiency
The production process Flow production method
Job production method Batch production method
Lean production - introduction Lean production - methods
Quality - introduction Quality management - methods
Stock control  

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