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Equity finance - introduction

Author: Jim Riley  Last updated: Sunday 23 September, 2012

Introduction to share capital (equity)

Introduction

What is equity?

Equity is the term commonly used to describe the ordinary share capital of a business.

Ordinary shares in the equity capital of a business entitle the holders to all distributed profits after the holders of debentures and preference shares have been paid.

Ordinary ( equity) shares

Ordinary shares are issued to the owners of a company. The ordinary shares of UK companies typically have a nominal or 'face' value (usually something like £1 or 5Op, but shares with a nominal value of 1p, 2p or 2Sp are not uncommon).

However, it is important to understand that the market value of a company's shares has little (if any) relationship to their nominal or face value. The market value of a company's shares is determined by the price another investor is prepared to pay for them. In the case of publicly-quoted companies, this is reflected in the market value of the ordinary shares traded on the stock exchange (the "share price").

In the case of privately-owned companies, where there is unlikely to be much trading in shares, market value is often determined when the business is sold or when a minority shareholding is valued for taxation purposes.

In your studies, you may also come across "Deferred ordinary shares". These are a form of ordinary shares, which are entitled to a dividend only after a certain date or only if profits rise above a certain amount. Voting rights might also differ from those attached to other ordinary shares.

Why might a company issue ordinary shares?

A new issue of shares might be made for several reasons:

(1) The company might want to raise more cash

For example might be needed for the expansion of a company's operations. If, for example, a company with 500,000 ordinary shares in issue decides to issue 125,000 new shares to raise cash, should it offer the new shares to existing shareholders, or should it sell them to new shareholders instead?

- Where a company sells the new shares to existing shareholders in proportion to their existing shareholding in the company, this is known as a "rights issue".

(2) The company might want to issue new shares partly to raise cash but more importantly to 'float' its shares on a stock market.

When a UK company is floated, it must make available a minimum proportion of its shares to the general investing public.

(3) The company might issue new shares to the shareholders of another company, in
order to take it over

There are many examples of businesses that use their high share price as a way of making an offer for other businesses. The shareholders of the target business being acquired received shares in the buying business and perhaps also some cash.

Sources of equity finance

There are three main methods of raising equity:

(1) Retained profits: i.e. retaining profits, rather than paying them out as dividends. This is the most important source of equity

(2) Rights issues: i.e. an issue of new shares. After retained profits, rights issues are the next most important source

(3) New issues of shares to the public: i.e. an issue of new shares to new shareholders. In total in the UK, this is the least important source of equity finance

Each these sources of equity finance are covered in separate tutor2u revision notes.



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Starting a Business

Sources of Finance for a Startup
Franchising
Cash Flow Forecasting for a Startup
Creating & Protecting Business Ideas
Startups and Understanding the Market
Market Research for a Startup
Locating the Startup Business
Choosing a Legal Structure for a Startup
Employing People in a Startup
Generating and Protecting a Business Idea
Using Breakeven in Decision-Making

Finance

Revenues
Breakeven Basics
Costs, Revenues and Profits
Business Costs
Using Budgets
Using Breakeven in Decision-Making
Investment Appraisal Basics
Financial Strategies
Measuring and Improving Profit
Improving Cash Flow
Working Capital
Balance Sheet
Income Statement
Financial Efficiency Ratios
Profitability Ratios and ROCE
Liquidity Ratios
Gearing

Marketing

Competition
Products & Brands
Place (Distribution)
Promotion
Pricing
Price Elasticity of Demand

Business Organisation

Basics of Business Growth
Business Activities
Legal Structure Basics
Franchising
Sole Traders and Partnerships
Limited Companies
Generating and Protecting a Business Idea
Organisational Structures

People

Working in Teams
Communication Basics
Communication Methods
Workforce Planning
Recruitment, Selection & Training
Employee Motivation
Organisational Structures

Operations

Operational Objectives
Critical Path Analysis
Scale and Resource Mix
Lean Production
Capacity Management
Customer Service Basics
Managing Quality
Operational Decision-making
Using Technology in Operations
Working with Suppliers

Economic Environment

Economic Sectors
Government Spending & Taxation
Inflation
Unemployment
Interest Rates & Monetary Policy

Business Strategy

Leadership styles
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Change Management







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Related study notes

INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTS
Introduction to Accounting
Users of Accounts
Accounting Concepts and Conventions
Stakeholder Theory
Characteristics of Accounting Information
Alternatives to Profit Maximisation
Maximising the Value of a Business
Non-financial Objectives of a Business
Comparison of Financial and Management Accounting

BUDGETING
Financial objectives - intro
Financial objectives - key measures
Introduction to Business Planning
Introduction to Budgets
Purpose and Role of Budgets
Incremental Budgeting
Zero-based Budgeting
Variance analysis
Budgeting limitations

COMPANY FORMATION
Introduction to Business Organisation
Forming a Company
Advantages of Incorporation

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Introduction to Financial Management
Introduction to Working Capital
Working Capital Needs of Different Businesses
Working Capital Cycle

SOURCES OF FINANCE
Managing Business Cash Flows - An Introduction
Introduction to Raising Business Finance
Sources of Finance for SMEs
Overdraft Financing
Business Angels
Introduction to Venture Capital
Sources of Equity Finance
Rights Issues
New Share Issues & Flotations
Intoduction to Leasing
Leasing - Advantages & Disadvantages

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Introduction to Financial Accounting
Income Statement
Profit quality
Balance Sheet
Current assets
Current liabilities

RATIO ANALYSIS
Introduction to Ratio Analysis
Interpreting Financial Information
Accounts & financial performance
ROCE
Asset turnover
Stock turnover
Debtor days
Creditor days
Liquidity ratios
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Shareholder ratios
Limitations of ratios

ACCOUNTING ISSUES
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STAKEHOLDERS
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