Today Medmerry in Sussex sees it's coastal realignment scheme complete.
In the past it has been one of the coastal stretches most at risk of flooding in southern England. There has been a shingle beach protecting the area but it required maintenance every winter to prevent coastal flooding during storms. With climate change and sea level rise increasing the risk the shingle beach is not a sustainable coastal protection method.
As a result the Environment Agency has bought up land the size of 300 football pitches, which it will allow to flood, and built defences further inland.
The size and location of cities follows a clear pattern -- you just need to look at them from far enough away. Wen-Tai Hsu of the National University of Singapore shows this with the help of economics. This research received the Austin Robinson Memorial Prize at the Royal Economic Society annual conference in April 2013read more...»
Natural hazards affect vulnerable populations, and one example of how the effects of a natural disaster were exacerbated by a lack of development is the Soufrière Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat (not to be confused with La Soufrière on the island of Saint Vincent, or La Grande Soufrière on the island of Basse-Terre).read more...»
The impact of natural hazards on a population is exacerbated by their vulnerability. At its most basic, ‘vulnerability’ means being prone or susceptible to damage or injury.read more...»
Global inequalities are exacerbated by human and physical factors, and the impact of earthquakes, epidemics and famine have a lethal reputation in the less economically developed world.read more...»
The AQA GCSE geography specification states that birth rates and death rates can be used as measures of development. So how are these calculated, and what actual use can they be in determining how well developed a country is?read more...»
Gross National Product (GNP) per capita is often used as an indicator of development. GNP can be defined as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a nation together with any money that has been earned by investment abroad, minus the income earned by non-nationals within the nation.
This is then divided by the number of people living in that country, to provide a figure of GNP per capita. GNP and GDP are usually expressed in US dollars.read more...»
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite indicator of economic development that includes non-economic statistics in an attempt to provide a development measure that is not purely monetary.
The HDI was established by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1990, and splits countries into four development categories: Very High Human Development, High Human Development, Medium Human Development and Low Human Developmentread more...»
There are many different measures used to assess the Development Gap, and each one offers an alternate way of dividing up the world with regards to how developed it is. Here, we shall look at some of the more common indicators of development used in Geography.read more...»
The rural-urban fringe is, quite simply, the transition zone where urban and rural areas meet, mix and sometimes clash.
It is a manmade version of the ‘edge effect’, which in the natural world is the juxtaposition of two contrasting environments or ecosystems. As there are quite a few factors that characterise the fringe well, it can be considered a landscape type in its own right, with wide open spaces interspersed by urban uses.
Here, we shall take a look at some of the more common characteristics of the rural-urban fringe which signify a movement out of the urban environment.read more...»
Between the 1940s and 1970s there was a series of technological breakthroughs and transfers that were the result of years of research and development. Most of the initiatives that were introduced began in the late 1960s in poorer, densely-populated parts of the world.
The Green Revolution spread modern agricultural technologies around the world, changed the amount of food that could be produced, improved food security and, in some cases, turned previously-food-scarce countries into exporters of staple crops.read more...»
If a plant is grown with the sole purpose of being used as a biofuel, or to be combusted to provide energy or heat, it is known as an energy crop. These plants are generally woody or grassy, and are low cost and low maintenance. Different types of energy crops are used in different situations: solid biomass, gas biomass, liquid biomass and green waste (by-products).read more...»
If the populace of a mostly-residential town tends to commute out of the town to earn money, then the town is known as a commuter town.
Sometimes suburbs can be confused with commuter towns, as the two are very similar. The main difference is that suburbs tend to be built adjacent to centres of economic or industrial activity, whereas commuting is the main economic function of a commuter town.read more...»
‘Cash Crop’ is the term given to the cultivation of crops for profit, and not for the subsistence of the grower’s family. Traditionally cash crops have only been a smaller, but necessary, part of a yield, in order to raise funds to invest in next year’s crop, and to meet the other life needs of the farmer.
In developed countries almost all crops are grown for profit, in contrast to developing countries where subsistence is still a necessity. Cash crops grown in developing countries do have an export value, however, and therefore attract attention and demand from more economically developed countries.read more...»
Sustainable cities, or eco-cities, are designed or managed to reduce their carbon footprint. The use of urban agriculture has recently become an increasingly important way of achieving this goal, as growing food in a city reduces the distance the food has to travel to reach the consumer. It can also be a good use of abandoned land in the heart of cities, or a useful way to increase awareness of environmental issues.
Here, we look at some examples of cities and towns that have embraced urban agriculture in an attempt to achieve sustainability.read more...»
Sustainable cities, or eco-cities, are designed or managed to reduce their carbon footprint. Policies surrounding public transport and the regulation of private transport are designed specifically for this purpose, and initiatives can range from implementing a Congestion Charge, such as in London, to a full-blown integrated transport policy that makes public transport and bicycles ubiquitous, and all but eliminates the personal car from the city centre.
Here are some examples of different schemes being implemented across the world in attempts to reduce the carbon footprint of a city.read more...»
Sustainable cities, or eco-cities, are designed or managed to reduce their carbon footprint. The use of renewable energy technologies are one of the most viable ways of contributing to that goal. Here, we will look at some examples of cities that are implementing large-scale changes to their energy supplies in an attempt to reach sustainability.read more...»
Many cities around the world suffer from the urban heat island effect, which is an area significantly hotter than its surroundings. One of the reasons for this is that there are lots of buildings with dark-coloured surfaces, which have a low albedo and therefore do not reflect heat well. This is particularly the case in cities that have used lots of concrete and asphalt in construction. During the summer the increased heat leads to overheating, which in turn makes more people turn on their air-conditioning, leading to more energy use and greater air pollution.read more...»
There are several policy routes that have been explored that help existing cities move towards sustainability. These include regulating the use of private vehicles, promoting green technologies such as solar and wind power, incentivising businesses to plant green roofs, and growing food within city boundaries. There are now several projects across the world which aim to build eco-cities from scratch integrating all these policies, while regulating recycling and private travel in an attempt to create a carbon-neutral, waste-free environment.
Here, we will look at three separate examples with different overall goals with regards to sustainability.read more...»
Sustainable cities, sometimes known as ecological or ‘eco’ cities, are settlements designed to have as little impact on the environment as possible. These can be pre-existing cities that feature management directed towards reducing the inputs of energy, water and food and reducing the outputs of heat, water and air pollution, or they can be cities designed from scratch with these concerns in mind.
Here is a summary of the various techniques through which the aims of an eco-city can be achieved:read more...»