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Unit 4 Macro: Country Profile Revision Sheet

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

Here is a Country Profile revision sheet that I have created as part of my revision programme for my A2 students. 

The idea is to complete (neatly) one sheet each for six countries – leaving room on the other side for additional useful revision concepts and background context. ideally students will choose at least one African country, a middle income nation, one or more of the BRICS or MINT countries and an EU country other than the UK. 

The sheets can be duplicated for class use and make an excellent prompt for discussion. Download a free version by clicking this link. Country_Profile_Revision_Sheet.pdf

Unit 4 Macro: Tourism and Economic Development

Tuesday, April 15, 2014

For many developing countries tourism is already a major part of their economy and a significant source of extra factor incomes and employment. But there is a fierce debate about the economic and social consequences of tourism - what roles can tourism play in economic development? Can travel to developing countries do more harm than good? This revision blog provides some arguments and resources on this topic.

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Structural Change in Asian and Australasian Countries

Using pubic data from the Asian Development Bank here are some illustrations of the structural changes in output that have occurred across a selection of countries in Far East Asia, Australia and New Zealand. Consider the magnitude of the changes that have taken place over the last twenty years. Note for revision which countries appear at the top and the bottom of each individual chart and think about WHY they appear in that position.

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Unit 4 Macro: Food imports set to rise in China

Saturday, April 12, 2014

This is a revealing perspective on the challenges facing China in producing enough food to feed the hundreds of millions of Chinese squeezed into their ever growing cities. 

China's policy makers are trying to increase the size of farms to exploit economies of scale and get their farmers to focus on cash crops. But the reality is that China will have to import a huge amount of food in the years to come - this creates big opportunities for farmers in China's trading partners.

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Unit 4 Macro: Asian Growth Requires Less Inequality

Thursday, April 10, 2014

The new annual report from the Asian Development Bank outlines what developing Asia needs to promote inclusive growth in the years ahead. Governments in the region should tackle widening inequality that is keeping millions poor, by using fiscal policy to help close income and wealth gaps and promote more inclusive growth, says the theme chapter of Asian Development Outlook 2014. The importance of equity in shaping future growth and development continues to gain momentum across the world and not just in the fast-growing Asian region.

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Unit 4 Macro: African Exports to China - Benefits and Costs

Tuesday, April 08, 2014

Preferential market access to China is providing an important growth-enhancing outlet for African exporters that find it difficult to break into industrialised countries’ markets. But there remain dangers that current export structures and national capacity constraints may further entrap Africa given its comparative advantage in primary resources and China’s comparative advantage in manufacturing products.

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What’s happening to Chinese growth figures?

Friday, March 28, 2014

In a rather low key report on the BBC website this week, I found the shock news that China had a trade deficit of $23bn in February. This is alongside the HSBC Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) which focuses on small privately owned businesses, and which gave a reading of 48.1 for March, compared to 48.5 in February - with any figure below 50 indicating a contraction in activity. 

And today there is a forecast of the 'official' PMI, which looks at the larger state-owned factories; although this is slightly over the 'expansion' measure of 50, it is only predicted to come in at 50.3 - and is subject to a 0.3 downwards correction to allow for seasonal patterns, according to Louis Kuijs, chief China economist at the Royal Bank of Scotland.

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Some Topical Issues in Trade and Development

Monday, March 03, 2014

I was delighted to give a talk to A2 economists at Wilson's School in Surrey today covering some aspects of trade and development economics. In particular we looked at the work of Hidalgo and Hausmann and their newly published Index of Economic Complexity. The slides from my talk are streamed below.

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Quiz on the Index of Economic Complexity

Sunday, March 02, 2014

The Atlas of Economic Complexity is a new book (perfect for the coffee table) from Richard Hausmann and Cesar Hidalgo. It maps out the degree of complexity of individual economies around the world and provides a hugely visual and interesting insight into the importance of knowledge in shaping the future prosperity of countries in the global economy. I have put together a 10 question quiz on some of their key results - a useful activity I hope for students interested in the commodity composition of trade of developed and developing countries. Have a go!

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Robert Peston - How China Ruled the World

Sunday, February 16, 2014

Robert Peston looks at the astonishing investment in urban infrastructure in China in recent years - 30 new airports, 26,000 miles of motorways and a new skyscraper every five days have been built in China in the last five years - required viewing for those interested in a key aspect of Chinese economic growth and development. Link to How China Ruled the World (BBC World)

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Poverty: New Thinking About an Old Problem

Saturday, January 25, 2014

Here are some notes taken from a talk given by Peter Coy, Economics Editor for Bloomberg Businessweek, at the Marshall Society Economics Conference in Cambridge in January 2015

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China’s Development - Past Present and Future

Notes from a talk given by Liu Xiaoming, Chinese ambassador to the UK at the Marshall Society economics conference in Cambridge in January 2014.

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Updates on Economic Reforms in China

Sunday, November 24, 2013

The Third Plenum has finished in China and with it has come some potentially significant reforms designed to rebalance the Chinese economy and shape future growth and development. The BBC's Linda Yueh has been prominent in reporting on this crucial stage of Chinese development and we have linked below to some of her recent output broadcast on the BBC.

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Unit 4 Macro: China: Opportunities, Threats, Success & Failure

Friday, November 08, 2013

This revision presentation highlights the key opportunities and threats faced by firms outside China looking to do business in and with China. It also provides examples of businesses that have succeeded in China and those that have struggled!

A fully editable and printable version of this presentation is included in our AQA BUSS4 2014 Toolkit on China which is being published on 8 November 2013.

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Unit 4 Macro: BBC’s New China Blog

This looks like being a great resource for students wanting to deepen their awareness and understanding of the Chinese economy. Here is the BBC's new China Blog. All the BBC's China journalists will be blogging here

econoMAX - China invests in UK Plc

Thursday, November 07, 2013

China’s government wants its economy to grow more sustainably. Currently, the Chinese economy is growing at a rate of 7.8% in the period July to September, compared to 7.5% in the previous quarter. However, this is significantly lower than the high and unsustainable rates of growth that the Chinese economy experienced over the last decade. The Chinese government have set a target growth rate of 7.5% over the next year and analysts believe that this will be achieved.

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Unit 4 Macro: Daron Acemoglu – Institutional Development

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

In a recent assignment, A2 students were asked to write a 500 word profile on each of two development economists of their choice and to capture their key ideas and connect to one or more current issues in development. I will be adding some of their responses to the economics blog. Here Ben Evans focuses on the work of Daron Acemoglu

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Unit 4 Macro: Who Will Grow Next?

Monday, October 28, 2013

In the second part of his conversation with Professor Richard Hausmann, John Authers from the FT asks which countries are well set for growth in the years ahead. Hausmann argues that there are three factors that explain growth - firstly how well natural resources are used, second how many productive capabilities a country currently has. And thirdly, how easy can a nation can acquire new productive capabilities. He claims that Mexico is better placed than Brazil on account of improved diversification into more sophisticated products. Hausmann forecasts that China will grow at a rate of around 5% between now and 2020, well below the growth target set by the Chinese government.

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Unit 4 Macro: Growth Elasticity of Poverty

Friday, October 25, 2013

Growth elasticity of poverty is a measure of elasticity (responsiveness) that calculates how much poverty falls for each percentage point in economic growth. According to a recent estimate from World Bank development economists Luc Christiaensen, Punam Chuhan-Pole and Aly Sanoh, that elasticity was about 2.0 in the developing world as a whole (excluding China) during the 2000s, but only 0.7 in Africa. In other words, the rapid growth achieved in many African countries over the last decade or more has not had as much impact on inequality as in other regions.

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Unit 4 Macro: How Countries Grow

The nature of A2 economics specifications is that they lag interesting and important developments in the subject much of which are directly relevant to what students are taught in the classroom. The role of complexity in understanding how and why countries grow is one such example and I have blogged before about the work of Cesar Hidalgo and Richard Hausmann through the Observatory of Economic Complexity - see "Teaching Trade in a Different Way"

It is a joy to find the Financial Times covering some of their ideas in a brace of short videos as part of the John Authers Daily Note. You can always find these clips on the FT's You Tube Channel and I strongly recommend this for ambitious and enthusiastic students.

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Unit 1 Micro: Chinese Get into a Froth over Starbucks Prices

Tuesday, October 22, 2013

Where would you expect a Starbucks latte to be cheaper - in a coffee store in downtown New York or in a Starbucks store in China? Keep in mind that per capita incomes in China are around one tenth of those in the United States.

The answer may come as something of a surprise!

In a report on coffee prices that has caused something of a stir across social media platforms, the state-owned broadcaster CCTV reported that a medium-sized latte cost Rmb27 ($4.43) in China compared with Rmb19.98 in Chicago, Rmb14.6 in Mumbai and Rmb24.25 in London.

Starbucks responded that its pricing strategy was based on local market costs, including infrastructure investment, real estate and labour costs. It also added that its Asia-Pacific profit margin was for 14 countries, not just China. They added that each Starbucks market is unique and has different operating costs and that it would be inaccurate to draw conclusions about one market based on the prices in a different market.

The prices of imported goods in China are often raised because of the effects of import taxes (tariffs) - in this case the customs duty on roasted coffee beans is 15%. Add to that a sales tax of 17%.

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Hinkley China Power.

Monday, October 21, 2013

A huge reminder about the shifts in economic power arrived with the news about the development of Hinkley C nuclear power station.

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Angus Deaton- - The great escape from inequality

Friday, October 18, 2013

It was a pleasure to visit the LSE earlier on this week to hear a lecture from the distinguished economist Professor Angus Deaton from Princeton University in the United States. His new book "The great escape from inequality" is on my must-read list for the half term holiday and brings into focus over 250 years of changes in health and income inequalities across the world economy.

I will blog about his book a little later on but for now this Financial Times interview provides an introduction to some of the main themes of his book. Incidentally, Professor Deaton has strong views on the efficacy of foreign aid and this chapter of his book has provoked some strong responses from the pro-aid lobby active on twitter. Click below for the full video of his lecture at the LSE.

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Unit 4 Macro: Minerals and Development - Overcoming Resource Curses

Sunday, October 13, 2013

On the World Bank twitter account, President Jim Kim is quoted as saying that "Properly managed, new minerals wealth could transform Africa’s development." Back in June 2013, a new report from the African Progress Panel looked at this important issue and set out an agenda for maximising Africa’s natural resource wealth and using it to improve well-being.

My own students have been researching the economics of natural resources and whether they can be a blessing and/or a curse to countries seeking sustained growth and development. I just wanted to share one or two of these essays with you because I was delighted with the depth of the independent research on show and the quality of evaluation in their arguments.

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Peru’s Free Trade Agreement with China

Wednesday, October 09, 2013

Workers in Peru say they are suffering because of competition from cheaper imports. Chinese imports are stifling what was one of the largest clothing manufacturers in South America and a free trade agreement could make matters worse. A short video clip on this issue/

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Unit 4 Macro: Economic Growth, Investment and the Middle Income Trap

Thursday, October 03, 2013

A revision presentation on aspects of the links between investment and economic growth. Plus some slides on the causes of the so-called Middle Income Trap

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Shanghai’s New Free Trade Zone

Monday, September 30, 2013

Here are some video resources on Shanghai's new tree trade zone. The Financial Times reports that "The Chinese government has declared that it wants to use the zone – a small 28 sq km sliver of Shanghai – as a test bed for policies from interest rate liberalisation to capital account opening - There are no residents in the zone – only offices, factories and hotels" There is much debate about whether the creation of a new free trade zone will bring about greater digital freedom in China - allowing for example, freer access to social networks such as Facebook and Twitter

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Unit 4 Macro: Is China Losing its Competitiveness as a Low-Cost Location for Manufacturing?

Thursday, September 26, 2013

More than half of U.S.-based manufacturing executives at companies with sales greater than $1 billion are planning to bring back production to the U.S. from China or are actively considering it, according to a new survey by The Boston Consulting Group.

The share of executives who are planning to "onshore" or “reshore” or are considering it rose to 54 percent, compared with 37 percent of executives who responded to a similar BCG survey in February 2012.

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Talking Business with Linda Yueh

Here at Tutor2u we are really looking forward to the launch of a new programme on BBC - Talking Business with Linda Yueh. Linda has spoken at several of our Tutor2u events in recent years and her ability to communicate important and often complex ideas to a wider public has been clearly evident in her presentations. This is a programme well worth tuning into and sharing with your students. Click here for details. See also: China's Transformation - The Long View (Linda Yueh at the Tutor2u Conference)

Globalisation – how globalised is the world?

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Today in class we were discussing the forces of globalisation, and some of the discussion took us down the following route:

Globalisation is defined in many different ways – there is no textbook definition - but economic globalisation is usually characterised by some of the following features:

    - An increasing interdependence between economies and an erosion of national boundaries

    - Increased cross-border activity from MNCs

    - Increased cross-border flow of trade in goods and services, movement of people, flows of financial assets, hot money, and FDI flows

    - The growth of labour migration and outsourcing and global supply chains

The OECD’s definition is: “The geographic dispersion of industrial and service activities, for example research and development, sourcing of inputs, production and distribution, and the cross-border networking of companies, for example through joint ventures and the sharing of assets”

One index that attempts to quantify and measure globalisation is called the KOF index.

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Paul Ormerod: China at the Cutting Edge

Thursday, September 19, 2013

In the whole of the 20th century, only a few countries managed to transform themselves and join the club of rich economies. Japan is the most prominent example. The key question for the first half of the 21st century is whether or not China will manage to do the same. It is a difficult and elusive feat, and the number of failures, of countries who nearly made it but then fell back, is as great as the successes.

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​Oxbridge Economics: China’s currency – where does it go from here?

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

China’s track record on using its currency as a tool for manipulating its international competitiveness has been well documented, especially during the period of 1995-2005, where it was pegged at 8.28 RMB to the USD.

However, adopting such strict policies on the exchange rate, leads to the Impossible Trinity / Trilemma - that is, that it is not possible for a country to have all three of the following at the same time:

    - A fixed exchange rate

    - Free movement of capital

    - An independent monetary policy

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Unit 4 Macro: ASEAN - Trade and Economic Growth

Monday, September 16, 2013

Economist Anthony Beaumont considers how the deeper economic integration within the ASEAN single market can act as a stimulant to economic growth and development for member nations

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Unit 4 Macro: Macau’s Comparative Advantage in Gambling

Sunday, September 15, 2013

Few places come close to matching the revenues from gambling generated by casino-led Macau as this Economist graphic illustrates! Macau is a special administrative region of China on the other side of the Pearl River Delta from Hong Kong. Jobs in casinos are easy to come by and unemployment is said to be little more than 2% of the labour force. But what are the economic risks and social costs of having a local economy chronically dependent on gambling for the bulk of jobs and incomes?

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Unit 4 Macro: Ambitions for ASEAN in next phase of Globalisation

Thursday, September 12, 2013

ASEAN is a trade bloc of 10 nations with an aggregate economic size of $2.3 trillion. Their aim is to establish a fully-fledged economic community (AEC) by the end of 2015. The trading bloc’s diversity – ranging from advanced economies like Singapore to developing countries like Myanmar is an interesting feature – who will be the winners and losers from deeper economic integration in the region?

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Unit 4 Macro: Quah v Chang on Market-Led Development

Tuesday, July 30, 2013

Here are some summary notes from a discussion between Danny Quah and Ha Joon Chang at a recent LSE panel discussion on the question "Is there a future for market-led development?"

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Unit 4 Macro: Perspectives on the BRICS Slowdown

Saturday, July 27, 2013

There has been renewed focus in recent weeks on the slowing growth rates in the BRIC countries - Brazil, Russia, India and China. It is inevitable that the pace and sources of growth will change as these countries develop and experience continued structural adjustments. How successful will they be in responding the the challenges and opportunities of the next stage of development? In this blog we link to some recent articles on the BRIC countries for students wanting to deepen their understanding of this important area of the A2 macro course.

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Unit 4 Macro: China’s Great Re-Balancing

Tuesday, July 23, 2013

Here is another good resource for students who are looking at prospects for the Chinese economy as part of their macro economic studies. While the Chinese economy continues to slowdown, policymakers in Beijing are faced with the dilemma of how to rebalance an economy that till now has relied heavily on investment. The FT's Simon Rabinovitch reports from Guiyang. A re-balancing China will have to be a slower-growing China.

Follow the tags at the bottom of this blog for connections to all of our recent Unit 4 macro blog entries on China.

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Unit 2 Macro: Impact of China on prices in the high street

Monday, July 22, 2013

What effects does the rapid growth and development of the Chinese economy have on the prices we pay in the UK for different goods and services. This short video from the Bank of England looks at some research into the impact of China on our own consumer price index. It is good for deepening your understanding of the inter-connections between the two economies.

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Unit 4 Macro: Growth Slowdown in China

Tuesday, July 16, 2013

The pace of growth of the Chinese economy is weakening with new data showing an annual growth of real GDP dipping to just over 7%. China's economy is re-balancing away from investment and exports towards consumption. But at present there is a squeeze in household spending. Consumption in China contributed 60.4% to GDP growth in first half of 2012, only 45.2% in the first six months of 2013.

We link here to some resources on the issues surrounding the reduction in growth rates for the Chinese economy.

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Unit 1 Micro: Externalities - Air Pollution and Life Expectancy in China

Thursday, July 11, 2013

If this research is accurate the results are truly shocking. Coal related air pollutants have been shown to reduce lifespans in China by over five years, according to a new study conducted by researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and three other universities.

It is a compelling example of the human consequences of the externalities created by intense air pollution in one of the world's fastest-growing countries. Almost half of the world's coal is burnt in China - rapid development in the north of the country has increased the incidence of strokes and lung cancer, in part connected to the distribution of free coal for burning in millions of homes.

The Chinese government has announced plans for a new carbon emissions trading scheme as part of a strategy to lower pollution and achieve more sustainable development. It has ordered firms in heavy-polluting industries to cut emissions by 30% by 2017

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Unit 1 Micro: China Warms to Coffee Production

Sunday, July 07, 2013

Changing tastes and preferences drive resource allocation in a market economy. Coffee consumption in China has been growing steadily as the country's middle class tries new drinks and the result is that new coffee cash crops are being grown China to help satisfy growing demand from the domestic market. The Chinese Coffee Federation is also hoping that Chinese coffee will establish itself as a major coffee exporting nation.

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Unit 4 Macro: China’s Transformation - The Long View

Tuesday, June 25, 2013

Dr Linda Yueh gave a fantastic talk at the ETNC on the growth and development challenges facing China in the years ahead. Here is a shortened version of a recent talk given by her at the RSA in London in April 2013. We have also streamed the contents of the presentation for those who want to follow the talk in more detail.

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Unit 3 Micro: Adidas Goes West in China

CK Prahalad once wrote of the "fortune at the bottom of the pyramid"  - reflecting the commercial opportunities for businesses that can successfully connect and bring products to markets inhabited by low income consumers whose living standards are on the rise. China's fast-growing economy provides an enormous opportunity, but how can companies win sales in the Chinese interior, hundreds of miles away from the coastal centres of commerce? 

As wealth and consumerism reach China's most remote cities, foreign brands are venturing far from Shanghai and Beijing hoping to win over millions of new consumers. The FT's Patti Waldmeir visits two lower tier cities in central China and looks at how Adidas is expanding in the far outposts of the Middle Kingdom.

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Unit 2 Macro: The Rising Middle Class

Saturday, June 22, 2013

Hundreds of millions of people around the world are escaping poverty and becoming middle class. The explosion of new consumers in China, India and other economic powerhouses is changing the global balance of power. The BBC website has a new series on exploring the effects of this shift in global economic power and influence - click here for further research and watch the video below

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Unit 4 Macro: Linda Yueh - New Column on the Global Economy

Friday, May 10, 2013

The BBC's Chief Business Correspondent Linda Yueh @lindayueh has new page on developments in global economy http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/correspondents/lindayueh/ - definitely one for students and teachers to follow. The opening article focuses on a concept that we have been pushing in our own macro coverage in recent times, namely the emergence of a multi-polar world economy with growth coming from a bigger number of countries / regions and less dependent on the advanced western economies. Read the article here

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Unit 4 Macro: Growth and Development Challenges for China

Thursday, April 18, 2013

Here are some notes taken from a talk given by Linda Yueh on the Chinese economy at the RSA in London on the 18th April, 2013

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Unit 4 Macro: Taking the Pulse of Africa - Growth Outlook is Good

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

The latest edition of African Pulse published by the World Bank focuses on growth and development prospects in Sub-Saharan Africa and the overall sentiment is that the region is set to continue with a strong growth performance. 

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Unit 4 Macro: Growth and Development in Angola

Wednesday, April 03, 2013

A brief overview of economic developments in Angola, one of the fastest growing countries in the world - contains updated links to study resources on Angola.

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Unit 4 Macro: FDI in Africa

Friday, March 29, 2013


Revision blog on the economics of foreign direct investment in Africa with a special focus on investment from China and other BRIC countries

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