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I am hoping that my A2 micro students will be able to apply some of the concepts we have been looking at in recent weeks to this short forum question on pricing on the London Underground. Scratching beneath the surface there is much that can be applied! I will post a selection of answers / thoughts later on in the week.
A change of ownership for the much loved London to Edinburgh East Coast Line. East Coast is now operating the service - having taken over from the beleagured National Express. This BBC news report asks whether anything has really changed?
Google’s headcount quadrupled between 2005 and 2009 but for some years the revenue per employee was in decline. This is now in reverse and income from each worked employed is now at a 3-year high at just over $300,000 a year! I might use this chart as a teaching aid when teaching labour market economics - Google is perhaps the world’s biggest advertising agency and it finds even more ways to monetise its services from month to month - whilst keeping the bulk of core functions free to users.
The high price of gold, reported by Geoff yesterday, is giving a clear signal to a mining company in the Highlands of Scotland that it should start production from a gold mine that was first drilled 20 years ago, but has never been commercially worked because the price of gold did not provide enough incentive to the producers. However with the price of gold now at $1100 per ounce, mining operations could become profitable. Scotgold owns the Coronish mine near Tyndrum, a small village which is en route to Glen Coe, Fort William and Skye. Next month it will apply for planning permission begin mining operations in 2010 and this report from The Guardian says that Cononish is expected to start producing 200kg of gold a year at the mine site when full-scale mining begins in 2011 – enough to produce 30,000 wedding rings a year – and another 500kg each year by sending rocks for processing elsewhere.
Apple is amassing a huge cash pile - I might use this when teaching opportunity cost - and ask students why cash is important for businesses in a recession, how Apple has managed to accumulate so much, and what they might do with it. This BBC video provides a support.
In A2 micro today we were discussing price-capping by industry regulators as a way of overcoming some of the welfare losses created by monopoly. The new much-expanded regime of regulatory agencies charged with monitoring prices and setting caps when appropriate is available here - can colleagues suggest some more? !!read more...»
Fancy watching the Michael Jackson film “This is It” at your local cinema? Demand is strong and box office receipts are booming. As you pay for your ticket keep in mind that your local cinema will be engaging in a number of different forms of price discrimination to convert your hard earned cash into revenue and profit.
Take the admission charges for a showing this coming Tuesday - the 10th of November mid afternoon at three Vue Cinemas across the UK.
For a standard adult ticket there is a £1.95 price variation for these cinemas.
Doncaster (3pm) £4.75
Staines (4pm) £5.95
Greenwich O2 (4pm) £6.45
Fulham Broadway (4.30pm) £6.90
The later showing at Greenwich which restricts customers to Only 18s only will cost an adult £8.75 for a ticket.
We’ve updated our revision presentation on Price Discrimination which is available below:
A big hat tip to one of my students Arno Albici for spotting a superb article in the Economist about a cluster of mid-sized Japanese manufacturers who continue to enjoy near pure-monopoly power in highly specific, high value-added businesses. decades of industry expertise and reinvesting profit to fund high levels of research and innovation continue to give these companies a remarkable competitive strength in the market. The barriers to entry for rival manufacturers are very high and this helps to explain the limited contestability in the global marketplace.
Shimano earns around $1.5 billion a year by supplying 60-70% of the world’s bicycle gears and brakes
YKK makes around half the world’s zip fasteners by value,
75% of motors for hard-disk drives in computers come from a firm called Nidec
90% of the micro-motors used to adjust the rear-view mirror in every car are made by Mabuchi
“Many technology products have become commodities, but certain components have not, since they require continual innovation. So entry barriers to the business of making them remain high, and although the margins on the final goods have deteriorated, the margins on specialised, high-end components are still juicy.: Much more here
The Founder and CEO of King of Shaves, Will King gave an engaging and dynamic presentation to a large audience of economics and business students at our Entrepreneurship Society last night. The UK sales figures for the new Azor razors are quite remarkable and are testimony to the impact that this challenger brand is having on a monopolistic/duopolistic market. In the past four weeks in the UK KoS has sold 107,000+ Azor system razor handles and 602,000+ Azor Endurium cartridges.
Conventional MBA theory would suggest that the barriers to entry are just too high for a new firm to dislocate and disrupt the cosy market power of Gillette and Wilkinson Sword. The razor remains of the most patent protected products in the world and the billions of blades sold each year (at profit margin of over 90 per cent) represent an enormous cash cow for the US shaving giants. But easy cash can often stifle genuine creativity. The momentum of passionate and persistent challenger brands who truly understand the web and who talk to customers in a different way can make a big difference. The big Mo is with King of Shaves and it is easy to see why!
Our next meeting (Thursday 12th November) focuses on global economics and is with Paul Donovan, Chief Economist of UBS.
Coffee shops seem - by and large - to be surviving the recession and, in many cases thriving. The number of independent coffee stores has grown by more than 7% in the last year. Across the country hundreds of new stores have opened. This doesn’t make coffee an inferior good - whose demand rises as real income falls. Instead there are stronger forces at work, for example the rise of the nomadic entrepreneur who prefers to work away from expensive offices. Hugh Pym provides an overview of the strength of retail coffee demand in this piece from BBC news. London has the highest concentration of coffee stores in the UK followed by Edinburgh.
Not every brand is enjoying the same performance. Costa Coffe which has 974 stores in the UK has reported like-for-like sales growth yesterday of 2.5 per cent in the six months to the end of August.
Caffè Nero, which has almost 400 UK outlets, is believed to be trading at a similar level to Costa, although Starbucks has like-for-like sales down by an estimated 4.5 per cent to 5 per cent in recent months. Brand fatigue in action.
Here is an excellent highly relevant article on cooperative behaviour between oligopolistic giants. Two of the world’s biggest drugs companies GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer have announced a plan to merge their HIV treatments in a joint venture. ViiV Healthcare is an attempt for both companies to limit the risks of costly races to find new profitable treatments for HIV/aids and give them an opportunity to counter the loss of the revenues as these companies lose patent protection and are open to competition from generic drug makers. It is a strong reminder of the very high fixed costs of research into new drugs; the long lead times between new drug development, testing and finally getting it to the market. And also the impact of the entry of generic drugs into markets once patent protection runs out. The new company has a 19% share of the global drugs market, in comparison to the Californian company Gilead’s 31%.
Drug firms’ collaboration pools HIV treatments (Independent)
IPO of HIV business is ‘up to shareholders’ (Telegraph)
The UK market has fewer bank brands than most other countries and choice has fallen in recent years after the Spanish bank, Santander bought up Abbey, Alliance & Leicester and Bradford & Bingley, and Lloyds has taken over all of HBOS’s brands. However, as per a ruling from the European Commission, RBS will sell 318 branches while Lloyds will dispose of more than 600 branches over the next four years.read more...»
Graphically illustrated in this short piece from the Telegraph!
The Times today has an interesting article on the power battle between the water industry regulator OFWAT and the regional monopoly providers such as Thames Water. It appears that a much tougher pricing regime is planned for the utilities leading to cuts in the real price of water supplies for consumers.
“Every five years, Ofwat sets limits on prices that water companies in England and Wales can charge. For 2010-15, it has proposed that, before taking inflation into account, bills should be reduced for many customers, bringing the average annual water and sewerage bill down by 4 per cent from £344 to £330 by 2015. The water companies had wanted a £28 rise to fund their business plans.”
OFWAT wants the utilities to invest more in in improving drinking water quality, cutting leakage levels and raise the number of metered households from 36 per cent to 50 per cent (in a bid to control water usage). But will imposing real price cuts help achieve this objective? The aim is to have a pricing regime that forces the utilities to raise productivity and cut out as many inefficiencies as possible.
Water is a good example of where a strong regulator is needed because of the absence of competition - after all consumers can’t switch supplier if they are given a poor service.
This updated presentation provides an overview of the role of barriers to entry in protecting the position of a monopolist.
An excellent recent article in the ACCA magazine examines an interesting phenomenon - more businesses collapse at the beginning of a recovery than during the depths of a recession. Its all to do with working capital…read more...»
The wonderful Rory Sutherland wows the audience at the TED conference in Oxford with a superb sixteen minute talk on advertising and aspects of behavioural economics. It is an immensely watchable video that will allow you to discuss with your students concepts such as perceived value, symbolic value,intangible value, hedonic opportunity cost and some ideas for nudging personal behaviour in socially beneficial ways. We learn of the extraordinary value of placebos, the rebranding of the potato in Prussian Germany. That all value is subjective and that persuasion is better than compulsion. Some super examples too of Veblen Goods, price discrimination and how the framing of the Italian penalty points system for drivers in Italy has a different impact than for motorists in the UK.
Access to and the speed and reliability of broadband infrastructure is one of the key institutional factors that impact on economic development. The lack of an affordable and cost-effective broadband network can be a huge barrier to economic growth especially in an age where companies in many rich countries are looking to outsource their back office and call centre services to countries where operating costs are lowest. The 2009 UNCTAD Information Economy Report provides a wealth of background information on the global digital divide.
According to the latest report, businesses and consumers are 200 times more likely to have access to broadband in developed countries than in the poorest Least Developed Countries (LDCs). And the monthly cost of broadband access varies to an incredible degree - from over $1,300 a month in Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic to less than $13 in Egypt.read more...»
A well publicised price war has broken out in the United States between Walmart and Amazon. Wal-Mart’s $10 promotion applies to the top 10 books coming out in November but the company is also selling 200 best-sellers for 50% of their list price. In a move that has sent shock-waves through the book industry, Wal-Mart has announced it will be selling 10 forthcoming books for just $10 each including Sarah Palin’s autobiography. As is often the case when an aggressive price war breaks out in an oligopolistic market, online bookseller Amazon matched the price cut within hours causing Wal-Mart to cut again to $9. Amazon returned the favour and Walmart has sinced shaved one cent to $8.99! The FT reports that Walmart’s website, the second busiest in the US after Amazon, has also cut prices by 50 per cent on 200 best-sellers.
The battle comes at a time when both Walmart and Amazon are under pressure from Google who are rolling out an online site capable of delivering e-books to any device with a Web browser, with an initial library of about half a million titles.
How long the price war will last is open to question. The October-December season is a hugely important time for all booksellers - the festive period is the peak time for sales and the intense battle for market share comes at a time of great change in the industry - not least the rapid growth of e-readers and online libraries. Some book publishers fear a price anchoring effect on their industry - namely that Walmart slashing prices and rivals following suit will lead book-buyers to expect new titles to cost $10, a low prices that would force the publishing industry to re-scale its entire business, including the advances paid to writers and ultimately affect the range of titles on offer.
For the giants of the book retailing industry, the economies of scale and drive for hyper efficiency in getting products to the market are simply a way of reinforcing their market dominance.
But what about the impact on smaller independent booksellers most of whom can never hope to compete on price but who provide light and shade in the book selling industry.
It is a reminder that there are different types of efficiency. Allocative, productive, dynamic and social. The latter two may be damaged if the price war escalates and many smaller booksellers go under. This BBC world service news interview focuses on some of the cultural issues of the rise of the giant retailers. Chris Doeblin from the independent Book Culture shop in New York City accepts that supermarkets will bring the price of books down - as they have with food prices - but at a (social) cost to many of us.
Many thanks to Janis Thompson at Bristol GS for suggesting this terrific 3-minute video on the battle between supermarkets and their hard-pressed suppliers. A great range of business and economics topics in here, including an obvious starting point for discussing the ethical issues raised in the clip
A terrific illustration here of how the global banking market has changed in terms of its market shares and concentration ratio recently.read more...»
The relatively slow speed of the average broadband connections for most UK businesses and households will act as a contsraint on future competitiveness and growth. This report from BBC news finds that a study of the global state of broadband has put the UK 25th out of 66 countries in terms of the quality and reach of its networks. Rory Cellan Jones follows up the report with his own observations
“Britain has done well in the first broadband wave, using a pretty efficient copper network and DSL technology to get homes across most of the country connected. But other countries are moving forward more rapidly to build next generation networks using cable and fibre-optics.”
Investment in broadband can have significant demand and supply-side effects - the real consequences of under-investment will become more painful and obvious as time goes on - but who should pay for the extra capital spending needed? Will the new broadband tax make any noticeable difference?
Here is a fascinating article in the Times with Philip Thornton from Clarity Economics interviewing Mia de Kuijper an economist who can help companies to master the dynamics that govern their chances of success. Would be excellent for A2 students wanting some fresh ideas on management in an age of rapid technological change and a world of near perfect information. Her new book Profit Power Economics is due for imminent release.
John Gapper has a super blog over at the FT in which he discusses the benefits that might flow from reforming bankers’ pay and restoring the partnership approach to renumeration
“Mr Thain correctly pointed out during the session that the old partnership structure of Wall Street firms, under which partners’ capital was at risk until they retired, produced better incentives in terms of risk management than bonuses based on short-term performance…This is not a bad idea but it might be extended. Why not truly replicate the partnership structure by applying those conditions to everyone who reached “partner” level - senior managing director or the equivalent at a large investment bank?”
This ties in with the idea of changing the behaviour of senior management so that they give great weight to the risks of particular investment and lending strategies and tries to avoid the myopic decision making that has proved so costly before the financial crisis.
The partnership model has applied particularly successfully in the UK with the continued success of the John Lewis Partnership. In March 2009 despite the effects of the retail recession, John Lewis announced that The company it would pay out total bonuses of £125.5m. That is the equivalent to about 13% of salary, or seven weeks’ pay.
Elinor Ostrom and Oliver Williamson shared the 2009 Nobel prize for economics (and the accompanying $1.4m) on Monday for their work on how economic transactions operate outside markets in common spaces and within companies.read more...»
Amazon has announced that it will start shipping the Kindle e-reader in the next few days. Leander McCormick-Goodhart is doubtful about whether this spells the end of books. The Kindle device is part of an increasingly contestable market space whose size is set to rise sharply in the months and years to come. I have added a few links to Leander’s blog post. According to Chris Nuttall in an FT blog last month “there are now more than 45 e-reader models available worldwide, according to E Ink, the dominant technology provider for their displays.”read more...»
This morning, the Competition Commission announced that it has provisionally moved to block the merger between Ticketmaster (the world’s largest ticketing firm) and Live Nation (the world’s biggest concert promoter).read more...»
The scale of the ordering of swine flu vaccinations by governments across the world is eye-wateringly large! GlaxoSmithKline plc - one of the world’s biggest pharma companies has reported that governments around the world have so far ordered 440 million doses of its pandemic swine-flu vaccine Pandemrix. GlaxoSmithKline has been engaged in a tense race to get new swine flu vaccines onto the market fighting the likes of Sanofi-Aventis, Novartis AG and AstraZeneca to win contracts for public health programmes. For students of the price mechanism it is a fascinating example of many supply and demand concepts at work:
The challenge of scaling up production to meet huge levels of demand - this has involved out-sourcing
The relative importance of fixed and variable costs in developing and manufacturing/distributing a new drug
The elasticity of supply of vaccines to meet short term health requirements
The oligopolistic race to win and protect market share
Economies of scale in production
The balance of power between the major buyers and the multinational drug suppliers
Price discrimination tactics
The Guardian reports that:
“The company makes the vaccine in Dresden and Quebec but the demand is so great – about 60% higher than for usual seasonal vaccines – that it is also outsourcing production to third-party manufacturers.”
According to the Wall Street Journal
“Glaxo hasn’t released information on cost per dose of the vaccine. However, Chief Executive Andrew Witty said in July that Glaxo was charging wealthy nations $10.26 per H1N1 vaccine shot and developing countries less. The drug maker is also donating 50 million doses to the World Health Organization.”
The Independent reports that
“The United States has begun a massive campaign aiming to vaccinate 250 million people against the illness by year’s end.”
And the Times reports that “total booked orders for the drug are worth about £2.2 billion — a significant sales and profit windfall as a result of the swine flu epidemic”
The supermarkets are spinning the latest price war for sales of bananas as a welcome boost to the spending power of hard-pressed consumers. True in the short term - cheaper bananas in my household will simply encourage me to buy more but ultimately throw most of them away. The medium term impact on banana growers is of much greater importance and it is this issue that was addressed in a timely and useful Big Question feature in the Independent yesterday. Here is the link.
The Big Question: Why are bananas so cheap, and what does it mean for producers?
There is a huge amount of economics in the article not least some evidence on the oligopsonistic power of banana growers and the oligopolistic battle for market share among the major retailers:
“Banana production is an operation on a gigantic industrial scale and is dominated by just five huge companies, Chiquita (formerly United Fruit), Dole, Del Monte, Noboa and Fyffes, which control 80 per cent of the global trade between them.”
“Asda - which sells two million kilograms of bananas a week - is charging 46p/kg. On August 25, the price was 84p/kg and 99p/kg last Christmas. Tesco and Sainsbury’s had been forced to match Asda’s price while the cost of bananas at Morrisons has fallen to 57p/kg and 59p/kg at Waitrose.” (Daily Mail)
The days of the all in one ticket price - a simple means of flying from A to B are looking like a distant memory. The global aviation industry is set to lose up to $30bn this year and with average ticket prices continuing to decline and capacity utilization falling, the airlines are falling over themselves to find extra ways of getting passengers to part with their cash.
New wheezes include asking passengers to pay for the right to choose a seat, together with the growth of charges for baggage check-in and meals on board. If you are willing to pay in advance, travel light, book online and check-in online in a seat of the airline’s choice, you can still find very cheap flights. But the extras amount to a premium on choice and flexibility - I guess this is an example of the hurdle model of price discrimination - BA has launched a second-bag check-in fee on some of its flights and a reservation fee for passengers wanting to book particular seats more than 24 hours in advance of flight time. Day by day it is starting to resemble a budget airline in tactic as well as consumer goodwill. I booked a return flight to Hong Kong today with Cathay Pacific - no tedious optional extras - what a refreshing change!
This BBC video is good on the new a la carter revenue policies of airlines.
John Gapper’s blog is one that I follow on a regular basis. Today he writes about a further shrinkage of barriers to entry in the mobile phone market.
The BBC reports that PostComm - the postal service industry regulator has given initial backing for Royal Mail to increase the cost of a standard first-class stamp by three pence. This would take the price up to 42p. At the same time, standard second-class stamps may rise by 2p to 32p. How will consumers respond to the price change? For many the price hike will have little effect - most of the stamps that I buy can be reclaimed as stationery expenses. But many smaller businesses spend heavily on mailshots as a part of their marketing. A rise in mail costs may cause them to consider making more effective use of their customer databases so that - for example - a 3000 mail shot volume is better targeted than before. Do you think that the price elasticity of demand for stamps is price inelastic - at least in the short term?
The Royal Mail is subject to a price cap agreed with their industry regulator. Since the Royal Mail?s current price control was agreed in 2006, the Royal Mail has lost 9% of its mail volumes over the three year period to April 2009, largely through shrinkage of the total market including 20% of stamped mail. The Royal Mail has also had to face up to increased competition as the postal market has been fully opened up to competition.
Shrinking mail volumes has the effect of reducing capacity utilisation of their collection, sorting and delivery capacity and leads to a rise in the unit costs of the business. The Royal Mail is required by law to operate a universal service across the UK; it is a business that requires substantial economies of scale to remain profitable.
Leander McCormick-Goodhart provides an overview of the concept of creative destructionread more...»
The market space for enhanced water is getting crowded! Sales of ‘smoothies’ are down by more than fifty per cent this year but the volume of enhanced water bottles being bought is proving more resilient to the recession. And the growing amount of shelf space in the supermarket aisles given over to the likes of Firefly, Vitamin-Water, Just-Juice, Vitsmart and V-Water is testimony to the high margins these products generate. Chris Coleridge, co-Founder of V-Water gave a relaxed, entertaining and thoughtful presentation on the growth of his business to the Eton College Entrepreneurship Society on Thursday night. A large audience - fortified by a generous sample of the six flavoured drinks on offer - grilled Mr Coleridge on his business after he had taken time out to explode five myths about start-ups.read more...»
This is a hugely interesting interview with the CEO of Google Eric Schmidt. The questions and issues covered range from the future of cloud computing, the decline of traditional print media through to the challenge of maintaining an innovative momentum in an organisation that now employs over 20,000 people.
“So we have 20 per cent time for example, which means that engineers can spend roughly one day a week working on things they find interesting. We let people create start-ups within Google—Wave, Android and Chrome are some examples of the company within a company model.
As expected, the UK government has announced an extension to the car scrappage scheme which will expand the consumer subsidy to another 100,000 cars.
The ‘clash for clunkers’ scheme has at least helped to stabilise domestic car production but four fifths of the new cars sold in the UK are imported from overseas. According to the Guardian “For the year to date, production has declined by 44.6%. But the slight improvement recorded last month has prompted some carmakers to hope that the slump is bottoming out.”
So the direct impact on UK car assembly plants is smaller than we might think. Factor in though the multiplier effects on the suppliers of car parts and the boost to retail and distribution businesses.
Stephanie Flanders is on excellent form in her latest Stephanomics blog. She argues that the much larger German car scrappage scheme may have had an even bigger effect on our own producers than the UK government’s modest version. The German subsidy is worth ten times that of the UK and around 40% of German car sales last year were imports. More here.
A ten question multiple choice quiz on aspects of introductory theory of the firm can be found here
Sorry seems to be the hardest word for politicians and for all of us who have dug ourselves into a hole. But a new study of consumers from academics at Nottingham University finds that customers are more likely to continue a commercial relationship with a business that is up front anmd apologises rather than those who resort - after a delay - to financial sweetners. More here
Over ten years at my current school I have been hugely fortunate to hear some tremendous speakers on a tremendously wide range of issues. Few have impressed me as much as Simon Henry, CFO of Shell plc in his talk to our Keynes (Economics) and the newly-formed Management Society last night. His talk was beautifully paced and considered; the responses to questions were candid and rooted in a deep understanding of energy industries where volatility has become the norm. Future shareholder value will depend largely on successfully breaking the cycle of volatility.read more...»
Here is a super short article from BBC news on the impact that the recession has had on average hotel room rates in different locations across the UK. Demand and supply side factors impact on room rates in specific towns and cities. More detailed information can be found from this press release from Hotels.com.
“UK hotel prices fell 16% on average making the first six months of the year a great time to staycation. Prices in London were down 12% to £101 on average, in Bournemouth by 14% to £66 on average and in Southampton by 33% to £57 on average.”
It might be worth having a discussion about the reasons for these regional price variations:
A post from student Tom Hosking
Where does parmesan cheese come from? It may surprise you to know that it is most likely to have come from a bank! Banks in Northern Italy have been running a cash-for-cheese loan scheme for the past fifty years. This year, demand for the scheme has risen 15% because cheese makers are struggling in these hard times.read more...»
Volkswagen has a hugely ambitious long term aim - by 2018 it wants to overtake Toyota as the world’s biggest car manufacturer.
With this in mind it makes clear sense to focus capital investment in countries where the projected growth of demand for new vehicles is strongest. The relatively mature markets of Western Europe and North America look less attractive compared to emerging economies such as China and Brazil.
This week Volkswagen has announced a Euro 4 billion plan to expand capacity and output in China. In the short term the commercial need is to have sufficient capacity in place to meet the surge in demand brought about by the deep cuts in taxes on new cars introduced by the Chinese government as part of its economic stimulus programme - there has been a temporary cut in the purchase tax on cars with 1.6 liter engines to 5%. In the first half of 2009 Volkswagen has already sold over 620,000 cars in China!
Long term however the market demand for automobiles is forecast to rise by more than 10% per annum. Volkswagen has engineered joint ventures with Chinese manufacturers to build cars at plants in Nanjing and Chengdu - it is not beyond the realms of possibility that within eight years, it could be assembling over two million cars a year in China - a staggering volume of production and one designed to maximise the economies of large scale production.
We are told that this new product has been forty-five years in the making. McLaren has unveiled its new super sports car, designed using Formula 1 technology.
This BBC video offers a sneak preview of the new car and it might be a good one to use when discussing needs and wants! Or the income elasticity of demand for luxury products and the price premium for motorists already wetting themselves in anticipation of getting behind the wheel! Given the relative absence of economies of scale in production, you might get students to estimate the likely introductory price in the market?
At a pinch I would price it between £175,000 and £200,000 but then again I am happy to potter around in a nine year old Citroen that is just a year from the knackers yard.
For those of you are thinking of buying an iPhone, you would probably do well to wait until Christmas it seems. The exclusivity agreement between Telefonica-O2 and Apple is set to expire in the next few months, which could lead to an all-out price-war in time for the festive season. As the exclusivity is removed, it should make the market more contestable, and the price should fall.read more...»
Is this going to be the new name of the proposed merger between T-Mobile and Orange?read more...»
A ban on traditional lightbulbs imposed by Brussels last year and adopted by the UK for implementation in 2010 is to be extended to cover spotlights and downlighters, an read more...»
Whilst unlikely to be fully resolved any time soon, the WTO has got around to producing its (unhelpfully, confidential!) ruling on whether European government loans to Airbus for aircraft development are illegal subsidies or not.read more...»
Despite getting clearance from the U.S Department of Justice, earlier this month, Europe’s top competition regulator today opened a full, in-depth inquiry into the proposed $7.4bn acquisition of Sun Microsystems by Oracle, citing concerns about the potential for anti-competitive effects if the merger went ahead unconditionally.read more...»
Over the summer, it seems that the browser wars have intensified, and Microsoft’s Internet Explorer’s virtual monopoly has its days numbered. Earlier this year, Google brought out its Chrome browser, to rival Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, and today it was announced that Google have signed a deal to get it in to Sony PCs.read more...»
With digital products the marginal cost of production is pretty close to zero - Google does not show up on your credit card bill and neither does Facebook. Bertrand predicted in the late 19th century that “in a competitive market, price falls close to its marginal cost”. Competiton is something we take for granted - it exists when you have two similar goods or services produced by mutliple parties. An under-cutting process can take place until the market price edges down towards the marginal cost of production. Now we have a digital economy where the MC of serving one more Tweet or web page is zero. How can you make money in this digital economy?
A recent talk by Chris Anderson at the RSA is now available to view on their web site. His explanation of freemium products is interesting as are his comments on piracy. To Anderson, piracy is an example of the animal forces of the market place because the music companies chose not to make their music free. Piracy is the market place imposing the price of free.
Another article on freemium is available here from the New York Times: Using Free to Turn a Profit
Chris Anderson - Free: The Future of a Radical Price