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Unit 3 Micro: Business Economics Glossary (EdExcel)

Thursday, January 03, 2013

Here is my current Business Economics glossary designed for the EdExcel unit 3 economics paper

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Unit 3 Micro: Market Power and Pricing Power

Monday, December 10, 2012

Here is a streamed version of a revision presentation on market power and pricing suitable for Unit 3 micro students

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Unit 3 Micro: Scoop-It on Market Structures

Monday, November 12, 2012

Matt Smith has been curating a Scoop-It collection of news stories connected to unit 3 microeconomics and specifically the economics of market structures. Click here to view it.  

The #econ3 hashtag is a great way for A2 students to follow a growing number of teachers who post ideas, links and advice on Twitter. Likewise use #econ4  for tweets focused on A2 macroeconomics.

Using McDonald’s as an example - I’m loving it

Sunday, October 21, 2012

I was told off this week by my students for using McDonald's as an example to illustrate my point yet again.  In fact it was the second week on the trot that I was reprimanded as they told me previously that I was always peppering my conversation with Latin phrases "'cos it makes you sound more clever."

"No I don't," I replied - I've told my students a million times not to exaggerate.  The offending example came as I was attempting to explain how fatty foods (especially those from the exalted temple of the Golden Arches) were a demerit good.  I thought about it for a little while and realised that two weeks ago I'd told them about the use of 'stars' to motivate McDonald's staff and their extensive training programmes when we discussed labour productivity.  I'd also mentioned them when we discussed possible issues relating to economies of scale and the fact that a homogenised world can lead to less choice (a weak argument in their view - a McDonald's in every town sounded like a wonderful idea) and discussed the use of persuasive advertising as an example of non-price competition.  They were right, I seemed to be talking about McDonald's all the time - and I'm a vegetarian!

"Mea culpa," I confessed.

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Civil Service on the WCM line

Thursday, October 11, 2012

Assessment failures were 'clearly responsibility of officials and not ministers', Philip Rutnam tells former transport secretary

Further material from Tomorrow's Guardian on the West Coast Mainline Franchise  troubles, which can be added to Jonny Clark's article from last week. 

If the Department of Transport is too incompetent to run a supervised franchised system, how viable is the alternative of a fully nationalised system?

West Coast Rail Line franchise decision - a fine example of Government failure

Wednesday, October 03, 2012

Every cloud has a silver lining!  News reports out today confirmed that the original decision to award the next 15 year franchise of the West Coast Rail line to FirstGroup instead of the incumbent Virgin Rail has been rescinded and the bidding process re-opened at a potential wasted cost of £40 million (by the way, have they fixed that leaky roof at your school yet?).  This may seem like a fiasco to train users and the general public alike but to us Economics teachers it's a super example of government failing to intervene correctly in a market.

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Microsoft market domination

Saturday, September 29, 2012

There was a time when if you asked students for an example of a firm with monopolistic tendencies more than 25% of them would give Microsoft as their answer.  Those days seemed a thing of the past as first Apple and then the more recent arrival of Google's Android platform suggested we were going tired of watching Bill Gate's egg timer.  However, it would seem that the arrival of Windows 8 has brought the good old bad old days of market domination back.

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Unit 3 Micro: Economics of the Milk Industry

Thursday, July 12, 2012

The milk industry is in the news once again with some dairy farmers threatening to go on strike and limit milk supplies in protest at cuts in the wholesale price of milk offered to them by the major milk processing businesses. I have put together some video resources available from different web sources and built them into a Storify slideshow, as more videos are added the slideshow will be updated automatically.


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Unit 3 Micro: Economics of the UK Water Industry

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

The English water and sewerage industry was privatised in 1989 and since then household and business consumers have received water services from a regional monopoly business. Companies such as Thames Water or Severn Trent are vertically integrated, water companies, which provide a ‘source to tap’ service: obtaining water from source through abstraction, treating it to an appropriate standard, and providing it to customers’ taps via company-owned infrastructure. Only very large business customers are able to choose their supplier.

In Wales, Glas Cymru is a single purpose water and sewerage company with no shareholders run solely for the benefit of customers. Scotland and Northern Ireland have retained the state-owned model.

Post privatisation, an industry regulator OFWAT was created. Like other regulators OFWAT has a number of roles including the aims of promoting the public interest and increasing cost effectiveness of the water and sewerage suppliers. The water industry has been subject to price controls over the last twenty three years with each price-control regime lasting for a period of five years. The current price control lasts until 2015.

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Unit 3 Micro: High Profit from Pay Day Loans

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

The pay-day loan boom is a symptom of more than three decades of financialization in the UK economy. Households and also some businesses are using the loans made available by companies such as Wonga. But borrowing from them involves astronomical rates of interest on an annualised percentage basis. In this clip we see how pay day loan businesses are becoming an ever more frequent sight on our high streets - but are tehey targeting the poorest and most vulnerable in society? Should regulators get tougher on them? Are they a sign of these difficult times?

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BMW - Bavarian Monopolist at Work

Thursday, May 24, 2012

BMW have been fined SFr156m ($163m) by Swiss Competition Authorities for restricting the supply of BMW and MINI cars to Swiss purchasers.

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Unit 3 Micro: Key Diagrams for Business Economics

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

Here is a revision download containing some key theory diagrams and accompanying explanation for topics in business economics / theory of the firm / market structures.


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Royal Mail’s refusal to supply

Friday, April 13, 2012

Here is the sub-heading from the report in today’s Daily Telegraph: “Royal Mail is limiting the number of stamps it supplies to retailers now to ensure it profits from record price rises later this month.” The report goes on “Royal Mail confirmed on Thursday that it had imposed a cap on the number of stamps every shop could buy. Retailers said it was refusing to restock them when they exceeded their allocation.” Ian Murray, the shadow postal affairs minister, says that he will be writing to regulator Ofcom about this rationing of supplies.

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Unit 3 Micro: Revision on Entry Barriers

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Here is a revision presentation focusing on different entry and exit barriers in imperfectly competitive markets.

Entry barriers:
* Block potential entrants from making a profit
* Protect the monopoly power of existing firms
* Maintain supernormal profits in the long run
* Barriers to entry make a market less contestable

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Unit 3 Micro: Revision on Price Discrimination

Monday, April 09, 2012

This is an updated revision presentation on price discrimination in markets designed for A2 micro students.

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Unit 3 Micro: Revision on Monopoly Price and Output

Saturday, April 07, 2012

Show and explain how a monopolist maximises profit in a market

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Unit 3 Micro: Monopoly and Economic Welfare

Friday, April 06, 2012

Analyse the equilibrium price and output equilibrium under monopoly and perfect competition. Show and explain the deadweight welfare loss under monopoly and consider when a monopoly might be more productively efficient than a competitive market.

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Unit 3 Micro: Post Office Threatens Smaller Photo Businesses

Monday, April 02, 2012

As the Royal Mail moves towards an initial public offering the business is searching for as many ways as possible of expanding their revenue base to maintain the viability of hundreds of local post offices. One service is the lucrative market for passport and driving licence photos - a product that I suspect has a fairly low price elasticity of demand, I paid £5 for 5 photos in a train station the other week! This Channel 4 news video looks at the battle between the Post Office and independent private sector photo retailers who claim the government is skewing the market against independent shops by giving the Post Office a contract to renew driving licences and threatening to do the same for passports.

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Russia’s monopoly power over gas supplies

Sunday, February 05, 2012

It has been a bit chilly in the UK for the last few days, but nothing compared to the temperatures as low as -35 which have hit parts of central and eastern Europe. Of course, they are used to far colder winters than us, and have different ways of dealing with the weather, but reliance on gas supplies from Russia for the majority of their heating fuel leaves countries including Bulgaria, Serbia and Bosnia vulnerable to disruption in that supply.

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Unit 3 Micro: Oligopoly and Duopoly in Bus Markets

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Stagecoach Bus - a leading player in the UK bus industry

The UK Competition Commission has published an important report into the market structure of local and regional bus services in the UK, twenty five years after the industry was deregulated and largely privatised. Coverage of the report can be found here (BBC news).

Largely as a result of a long-term process of consolidation through merger and acquisition, the UK bus industry is found to be highly concentrated with five businesses dominating the sector even though more than 1,200 businesses provides services.

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Unit 3 Micro: Patent Wars- A Touchy Subject for Apple

Friday, December 16, 2011

This excellent news piece from Ben Cohen at Channel 4 looks at the increasingly aggressive patent war being fought by the manufacturers of the world’s leading mobile phone and tablet devices - the most profitable products in the digital economy. “Where once the giants (Google and Apple) competed on features, they now compete on patents.”

The news feature looks in particular at the intellectual property surrounding the slide-screen technology used by millions to unlock a device. Apple claims the IP to this but a video tracked back to twenty years ago suggests that developers were already thinking of something remarkably similar long before the iPhone came into existence. Can the makers of Android defend legal claims from Apple that their IP has been infringed? And who will end up paying for the enormous legal fees and possible extra licencing costs?


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The Christmas Tree of Integration

Thursday, December 15, 2011

A seasonal look at the methods of growth for firms, covering organic growth and the sources of external growth.

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Unit 3 Micro: Examples of Price Discrimination in Action

Monday, October 31, 2011

I tweeted earlier on today asking economics teaching colleagues what examples they like to use when teaching the topic of price discrimination under conditions of monopoly / imperfect competition. Thank you to everyone who contributed!

price discrimination examples

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Unit 3 Micro: Price Discrimination in the E-Book Market

Seth Godin’s Domino Project is an attempt to re-fashion the way in which e-books are published, sold and priced. This blog is particularly interesting for teachers and students who consider different forms of price discrimination. It proposes (at least) three different price tiers:

$1.99 ebooks - a clearing price for the majority of e-books
$5 ebooks. This is the price for bestsellers, hot titles and academic titles required by courses
$10 - $20 ebooks. This is the price you will pay to get the book first, to get it fast, to get it before everyone else

Read paying for first

What do you think? How do you see e-book pricing tactics evolving as the market grows? The UK Office of Fair Trading is currently investigating the market for e-books in the UK amid allegations of price fixing / collusion by several leading publishers. You can access the OFT investigation using this link.

Further reading:

Guardian (August 2011): Apple and major publishers face lawsuit over ebook ‘price fixing’

Telegraph: EU raids publishers in ebook price-fixing probe

By way of background - new research has found that the average e-book price of front-list e-books across the world was €10.50 net of taxes. The average price of UK frontlist e-books was €10.80, €1.50 more than equivalent US titles, but less than those in Germany, Spain and France.

Unit 3 Micro: You Sue, I Sue - Patent Wars Explode!

Sunday, September 25, 2011

The scale of the legal battles between different businesses in the mobile industry might just be unprecedented. This nifty graphic from the iDownload blog provides an overview of the complex web of litigation - a lawyer’s dream! But if Samsung succeed in delaying the release of the iPhone5 then what might become of their reputation with millions of consumers worldwide? An Indian Summer hat tip to Graham Carter for flagging up this visual.

A2 Micro: Competition Policy

Friday, May 20, 2011

The aim of competition policy is promote competition; make markets work better and contribute towards improved efficiency in individual markets and enhanced competitiveness of UK businesses within the European Union single market.

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A2 Micro: Entry Barriers in Markets

Thursday, May 19, 2011

Barriers to entry are designed to block potential entrants from entering a market profitably. They seek to protect the power of existing firms and maintain supernormal profits and increase producer surplus. These barriers have the effect of making a market less contestable - they are also important because they determine the extent to which well-established firms can price above marginal and average cost in the long run.

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A2 Micro: The Importance of Profit

Profit measures the return to risk when committing scarce resources to a market or industry. Entrepreneurs take risks for which they require an adequate rate of return. The higher the market risk and the longer they expect to have to wait to earn a positive return, the greater will be the minimum required return that an entrepreneur is likely to demand. Economists distinguish between different types of profit – explained below:

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A2 Micro: Market Structure, Conduct & Performance

This updated revision presentation is designed to help students preparing for markets-related topics on A2 economics specifications.

Market Structure Conduct & Performance - revision presentation

Download printable (pdf) slide handout

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A2 Micro: Consequences of Price Discrimination

Who gains and who loses out from persistent and pervasive price targeting by businesses? To what extent does price discrimination help to achieve an efficient allocation of resources? There are many arguments on both sides of the coin – indeed the impact of price discrimination on welfare seems bound to be ambiguous.

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A2 Micro: Examples of Price Discrimination

Price discrimination occurs when a business charges a different price to different groups of consumers for the same good or service, for reasons not associated with costs.

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A2 Micro: Business Growth

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

This revision note looks at the growth of businesses - we will be adding fresh links at the foot of this blog to recent blog entries on business growth articles and news stories

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Some light relief from revision - this week’s economics TV

Sunday, May 15, 2011

Here is a selection of this week’s TV (and a bit of radio) that seems to have some good economics content and might provide a welcome, yet useful, break from revision.

Sunday 15th May: BBC4 8pm, ‘The Secret Life of the National Grid’ - could be worth a look in terms of economies of scale, network externalities, economic growth and the importance of infrastructure

Sunday 15th May: Radio 4 8pm, ‘The Bankers and the Bottom Billion’ - possibly some useful bits in terms of development economics

Monday 16th May: BBC1 8.30pm, ‘Panorama’ - this week’s investigative documentary looks at the illegal trade in waste electronic products following the introduction of regulations governing how we can dispose of such things - probably very good in terms of analysing a type of government failure

Monday 16th May: BBC1 9pm, ‘The Street That Cut Everything’ - looks rather entertaining as well as providing a bit of an insight into topics such as government spending on public goods and goods that generate positive externalities

Monday 16th May: BBC4 9pm, ‘The Golden Age of Canals’ - whilst at first glance this may not seem too appealing, I suspect there are some interesting nuggets in terms of networks and infrastructure spending, as well as a look at why canals fell into obsolence due to the invention of the combustion engine (some creative destruction here!)

Tuesday 17th May: BBC3 9pm, ‘Secrets of the Superbrands: Technology’ - a good look at how monopolies put up strategic barriers to entry in terms of branding and smart use of technology to achieve consumer loyalty

Thursday 19th May: ITV1 7.30pm, ‘The True Cost of a Car’ - a look at the impact on motorists of rising fuel prices and insurance premiums, which will bring in cross-elasticity of demand in a roundabout way

Thursday 19th May: Radio 4, 8pm, ‘The Report’ - a closer look at the operation of supermarkets and why there is opposition to their expansion (useful for looking at the impact of rising market power)

Friday 20th May: BBC2 7pm, ‘Wind Farm Wars’ - probably very useful for those sitting AS Unit 1 this summer in terms of negative and positive externalities of production, and the ins and outs of cost-benefit analysis

Hopefully there’s some light relief in there for everyone! All of the BBC programmes will be available on iPlayer for several days after they’ve been broadcast.

Wiki Revision: A to Z on Monopoly

Saturday, April 23, 2011

Here is a revision idea. Take a broad topic - in this case the economics of monopoly - and get students to enter items for an A to Z on that topic. Here is an A-Z relating to monopoly, I am sure we have missed out lots of ideas, can you add some in? If so please leave a comment!

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AS Micro Revision: Market Power

Thursday, April 21, 2011

A revision note on aspects of industries in which there is strong market power among one or a few businesses.  Most markets are competitive with a number of suppliers (producers) competing for the demand of consumers. Some are more competitive than others. At AS level it is important to understand some of the factors that lead to market (monopoly) power and to evaluate the costs and benefits of markets where monopoly power exists together with the effects of different types of government intervention. The revision note is available to download here: Revision_Market_Power.doc

A2 Micro: Updates on Competition Issues

Saturday, April 02, 2011

Here are some links to recent news stories on competition and monopoly issues in the UK and the EU Single Market

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Timetric: Price convergence within the EU

Sunday, March 13, 2011

Has the growth and development of the European Union single market and the Euro accelerated a process of price convergence within the EU? Price convergence means that the gap in prices for the same good or service has come down and in theory, having one currency and an open market ought to bring down the extent of price variations. Our Timetric chart below tracks what has been happening to the price convergence indicator. A fall in the measure indicates a coming-together of average prices.

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Dynamic efficiency in the condom market

Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Designed by and designed for women, L. is among the first woman-run condom enterprise that sells all natural male condoms for women. Inspired by work in Africa where nine out of 10 African countries goes without condom supplies for more than two months here is an interesting example of an attempt to break into the dominant monopoly of the major condom manufacturers such as Durex.

Apple and Goldman Sachs - Worlds Apart

Wednesday, January 19, 2011

Here is a fantastic piece from John Cassidy - author of Why Markets Fail - a simply terrific investigation of the different ways that we can measure the rate of return for different business activities. Apple employees earn a lot less than Goldmans’, despite generating a much higher return.

Pricing tricks and behavioural economics

Sunday, December 12, 2010

Martin Hickman’s Consuming Issues column in the Independent this weekend has a piece on some of the tactics used by retailers to take commercial advantage of many of our behavioural biases.

These pricing tactics include:

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Google investigation

Tuesday, November 30, 2010

The European Commission has launched an investigation into Google after other search engines complained that the firm had abused its dominant position.
The EC will examine whether the world’s largest search engine penalised competing services in its results…

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Does Facebook have a monopoly over the internet?

Sunday, November 21, 2010

Obviously, Facebook is not a monopoly in the pure sense - there are, of course, other websites on the internet! However, students studying A2 Economics will be well aware that the working definition of a monopoly, as used by the Competition Commission, is a firm with more than 25% market share.

Imagine my surprise, then, when I read this short article from the Boy Genius forum. According to a recent report filed by Experian’s Hitwise group regarding internet usage in the US during the week ending 13th November, one of every four page views took place on

This could spark an interesting discussion on whether the 25% definition is necessarily a useful benchmark in all markets. Does Facebook have any degree of control over the internet?

The Rise and Rise of Internet Monopolists

Sunday, November 14, 2010

There is a fascinating piece here from the World Street Journal Blog on the inexorable rise of a new breed of internet monopolist - businesses with dominant positions in their industry space that millions of people cannot do without from day to day and where the effective barriers to genuine competition are pretty fierce. The article emphasises the importance of first mover advantages and also network economies of scale - a demand-side economy of size that normal economics textbooks are slow to introduce into their coverage.

“It’s hard to avoid the conclusion that we are living in an age of large information monopolies. Could it be that the free market on the Internet actually tends toward monopolies?.....Internet industries develop pretty much like any other industry that depends on a network: A single firm can dominate the market if the product becomes more valuable to each user as the number of users rises. Such networks have a natural tendency to grow, and that growth leads to dominance.”

More here “In the Grip of the New Monopolists”

In a related article Edmund Conway (now based in Washington) discusses the power of disruptive technologies and the huge take up of the Apple iPad among people many of whom have never bought a laptop before.  A hat tip to my colleague Tom Allen for spotting this one.

Time Magazine has listed the iPad as one of its top fifty innovations of 2010 - more here

Experimenting with Google Docs - the Rise of a Digital Conglomerate

Monday, November 08, 2010

I have started using Google docs as a tool for collaborative work between my students. It is early days yet but my aim is to set a discussion question once a week for each group to contribute to, I will credit students for the input they have having reflected on the edit history for the document. Here is our first attempt.

The expansion of Google and the economics behind their growth strategy offers interesting avenues for study as part of your A2 micro course. This document asks a simple question “Which industry is Google in?” The answer(s) will reveal much about the nature and ambition of Google as a business and the economics of contestable markets and monopolistic markets. The full document can be downloaded below as a pdf file.

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Barriers to Entry: Cutting it in the USA

The Telegragh today has a piece on our good friend Will King from King of Shaves. KoS have entered into a joint venture with Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc., owner of Remington branded electrical shaving, grooming and styling products (remember Victor Kiam’s famous ads?) in a bid to establish a stronger foothold in North American markets that have been dominated for decades by Gillette and Wilkinson Sword.

The article is a timely reminder of the entry barriers that exist when seeking to enter overseas markets. From previous experience, Will King has learned that the market dynamics of the USA are decidedly different. To win orders from retail giants Walmart and Target you need scale, heavy marketing spend and reach. It will be fascinating to see how the KoS brand does in the months ahead.

Since Will King created the Original Shaving Oil in 1993, King of Shaves has grown to become the number two ‘shaving software’ brand in the UK, and is the fastest growing brand in its market place. A King of Shaves product is sold every seven seconds

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Contestability in the online electricals market

Tuesday, November 02, 2010

The retail market for the latest TVs, gaming consoles, electronics and other gadgets has just become more contestable!

Best Buy the giant US electrical retailer has announced that it is planning to launch an entry into the retail market for electrical appliances in a move that will potentially shake up the consumer electronics market which has been populated and dominated for many years by high street regulars such as Currys and Dixons, more recently by Amazon and Best Buy’s huge economies of scale have made it relatively easy to enter the UK market. They bought a 50 per cent stake in Carphone Warehouse last year and they have already opened five new “bricks and mortar” stores in Essex, Birmingham, Southampton and Liverpool in the past few months.

Their next move is to establish an online presence in the UK and it seems this will be up and running in time for the lucrative Christmas buying period. More here in this article from the Independent.


Just Giving - An Abuse of Monopoly Power?

Saturday, October 30, 2010

Just Giving has become the market leader in web sites offering charities a platform for raising money online. By some estimates they take over eighty per cent of total charitable giving done online. But there are complaints that Just Giving is abusing their dominant position by charging higher fees that other comparable sites for taking donations - they claim 5pence in every £1. Nigel Cassidy provides this brief video report. A hat tip to Gareth Williams for spotting it. Gareth writes on his Twitter account “Just Giving, an example of abuse of market power or do the consumers benefit from extra dynamic efficiency of a monopoly?”

A2 Micro: Monopoly Price and Output

Thursday, October 28, 2010

Our revised presentation on monopoly price and output is available in three formats


Handout (pdf)

SCORM VLE Import (Zip File)

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Competition in action: Google vs the World!

Wednesday, October 06, 2010

It is already common knowledge that Google is by far the biggest player in the internet search market (with an 83% share globally at last count). In fact, their search is one of the few products that are so ubiquitous that its name has become a verb. Think about it - would you naturally say “search for it” or “Google it”? Surely, this is the ultimate form of monopoly power.

However, many will be less aware of the web giant’s rapid growth in other markets, namely those for internet browsers and smartphone operating systems. Here are links to two articles from the blog Engadget which show how Google’s innovation and rapid product development have made them increasingly competitive in markets that until recently were dominated by other large firms. This could be good as a starter or mid lesson stimulus for a lesson on competition, barriers to entry or even growth strategies of firms.

Incidentally, I am one of the many who have bought into the Google franchise and use both the Chrome browser and an Android phone. I have found both excellent so far!

Internet Explorer falls below 50 percent global marketshare, Chrome usage triples

Android is number one OS among US phone buyers over the last six months

External Growth - Google’s Acquisition Boom

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Whenever you are studying or teaching the external growth of a business, head over to Wikipedia and check out the list of corporate acquisitions that cash-rich Google has made in recent times. It is an enormous list and one that extends with every passing year. Business Insider focuses on Google in their daily chart

This supporting article considers some of the motives behind the boom in acquisitions - not least the desire to attract experts into markets where Google has no substantial track record.
A further article here takes you through the details of each acquisition - trying to work out where each investment fits into Google’s growth strategy

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